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Learning in experimental 2×2 games

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  • Sebastian J. Goerg

    ()

  • Thorsten Chmura
  • Reinhard Selten

Abstract

In this paper we introduce four new learning models: impulse balance learning, impulse matching learning, action-sampling learning, and payoff-sampling learning. With this models and together with the models of self- tuning EWA learning and reinforcement learning, we conduct simulations over 12 different 2×2 games and compare the results with experimental data obtained by Selten & Chmura (2008). Our results are two-fold: While the simulations, especially those with action-sampling learning and impulse matching learning successfully replicate the experimental data on the aggregate, they fail in describing the individual behavior. A simple inertia rule beats the learning models in describing individuals behavior.

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File URL: http://www.wiwi.uni-bonn.de/bgsepapers/bonedp/bgse18_2008.pdf
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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by University of Bonn, Germany in its series Bonn Econ Discussion Papers with number bgse18_2008.

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Length: 34
Date of creation: Dec 2008
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:bon:bonedp:bgse18_2008

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Postal: Bonn Graduate School of Economics, University of Bonn, Adenauerallee 24 - 26, 53113 Bonn, Germany
Fax: +49 228 73 6884
Web page: http://www.bgse.uni-bonn.de

Related research

Keywords: Learning; Action-sampling; Payo?-sampling; Impulse balance; Impulse matching; Reinforcement; self-tuning EWA; 2×2 games; Experimental data;

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References

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  1. Colin Camerer & Teck-Hua Ho, 1999. "Experience-weighted Attraction Learning in Normal Form Games," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 67(4), pages 827-874, July.
  2. Timothy C. Salmon, 2001. "An Evaluation of Econometric Models of Adaptive Learning," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 69(6), pages 1597-1628, November.
  3. E. Kalai & E. Lehrer, 2010. "Rational Learning Leads to Nash Equilibrium," Levine's Working Paper Archive 529, David K. Levine.
  4. Christoph Brunner & Colin F. Camerer & Jacob K. Goeree, 2011. "Stationary Concepts for Experimental 2 X 2 Games: Comment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 101(2), pages 1029-40, April.
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  8. Ido Erev & Eyal Ert & Alvin E. Roth, 2010. "A Choice Prediction Competition for Market Entry Games: An Introduction," Games, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 1(2), pages 117-136, May.
  9. Erev, Ido & Roth, Alvin E, 1998. "Predicting How People Play Games: Reinforcement Learning in Experimental Games with Unique, Mixed Strategy Equilibria," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 88(4), pages 848-81, September.
  10. McKelvey Richard D. & Palfrey Thomas R., 1995. "Quantal Response Equilibria for Normal Form Games," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 10(1), pages 6-38, July.
  11. Osborne, Martin J & Rubinstein, Ariel, 1998. "Games with Procedurally Rational Players," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 88(4), pages 834-47, September.
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  13. Reinhard Selten & Klaus Abbink & Ricarda Cox, 2005. "Learning Direction Theory and the Winner’s Curse," Experimental Economics, Springer, vol. 8(1), pages 5-20, April.
  14. Reinhard Selten & Thorsten Chmura, 2008. "Stationary Concepts for Experimental 2x2-Games," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 98(3), pages 938-66, June.
  15. Wei Chen & Shu-Yu Liu & Chih-Han Chen & Yi-Shan Lee, 2011. "Bounded Memory, Inertia, Sampling and Weighting Model for Market Entry Games," Games, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 2(1), pages 187-199, March.
  16. Alan Beggs, 2002. "On the Convergence of Reinforcement Learning," Economics Series Working Papers 96, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
  17. Selten, Reinhard, 1996. "Axiomatic Characterization of the Quadratic Scoring Rule," Discussion Paper Serie B 390, University of Bonn, Germany.
  18. Ho, Teck H. & Camerer, Colin F. & Chong, Juin-Kuan, 2007. "Self-tuning experience weighted attraction learning in games," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 133(1), pages 177-198, March.
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  20. repec:kap:expeco:v:1:y:1998:i:1:p:43-62 is not listed on IDEAS
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  22. Abbink, Klaus & Abdolkarim Sadrieh, 1995. "RatImage - research Assistance Toolbox for Computer-Aided Human Behavior Experiments," Discussion Paper Serie B 325, University of Bonn, Germany.
  23. Cheung, Yin-Wong & Friedman, Daniel, 1997. "Individual Learning in Normal Form Games: Some Laboratory Results," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 19(1), pages 46-76, April.
  24. Metrick, Andrew & Polak, Ben, 1994. "Fictitious Play in 2 x 2 Games: A Geometric Proof of Convergence," Economic Theory, Springer, vol. 4(6), pages 923-33, October.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Ding, Jieyao & Nicklisch, Andreas, 2013. "On the impulse in impulse learning," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 121(2), pages 294-297.
  2. Christos A. Ioannou & Julian Romero, 2012. "Strategic Learning With Finite Automata Via The EWA-Lite Model," Purdue University Economics Working Papers 1269, Purdue University, Department of Economics.

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