An empirical model of household arrears
AbstractHousehold arrears on payment obligations are one of the most direct measures of household sector financial stress. In this paper a time series approach is used to model two of the key components of aggregate UK household arrears: those on mortgages and credit cards. Mortgages are the main component of secured borrowing by households and credit cards are a key element in unsecured borrowing. Recent data show that both secured and unsecured debt have risen substantially, both absolutely and as a proportion of income since 1997. Unsecured debt has increased more rapidly over this period and so has become more important in overall household debt. During this period of rapid debt accumulation, the proportion of mortgage loans in arrears has fallen but the value of credit card arrears relative to the value of active card balances has risen. These differences in the behaviour of arrears are explained by reference to the underlying driving forces identified in previous empirical work. In particular the level of housing equity appears to be more important in explaining mortgage arrears, and the role of supply factors is highlighted for credit card arrears. Although the estimated models confirm that both income and interest repayments (and therefore income gearing) are important factors in explaining both forms of arrears, unemployment only plays an additional role for mortgage arrears. Joint testing of the two models suggests a role for the ratio of the value of the mortgage loan to the value of housing equity for both kinds of arrears, but with opposing effects. In the case of mortgage arrears this might reflect the lenders' perceptions of the quality of the borrower. Credit card arrears appear to contain some information about future mortgage arrears although the reverse does not hold. Both equations adjust relatively quickly to any shocks, typically in around two years. The significance of the income-gearing term for both types of arrears underlines the importance of the path of interest rates for the financial position of the UK household sector.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Bank of England in its series Bank of England working papers with number 214.
Date of creation: Mar 2004
Date of revision:
Contact details of provider:
Postal: Publications Group Bank of England Threadneedle Street London EC2R 8AH
Phone: +44 (0)171 601 4030
Fax: +44 (0)171 601 5196
Web page: http://www.bankofengland.co.uk/
More information through EDIRC
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2004-04-04 (All new papers)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- David B. Gross, 2002.
"An Empirical Analysis of Personal Bankruptcy and Delinquency,"
Review of Financial Studies,
Society for Financial Studies, vol. 15(1), pages 319-347, March.
- David B. Gross & Nicholas S. Souleles, 1999. "An Empirical Analysis of Personal Bankruptcy and Delinquency," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 98-28, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
- David B. Gross & Nicholas S. Souleles, 2001. "An Empirical Analysis of Personal Bankruptcy and Delinquency," NBER Working Papers 8409, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Bart Lambrecht & William Perraudin & Stephen Satchell, 1996.
"Time to Default in the U.K. Mortgage Market,"
Archive Working Papers
016, Birkbeck, Department of Economics, Mathematics & Statistics.
- Sandra Black & Donald Morgan, 1998. "Risk and the democratization of credit cards," Research Paper 9815, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
- Elizabeth Laderman, 1996. "What's behind problem credit card loans?," FRBSF Economic Letter, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, issue Jul 19.
- David B. Gross & Nicholas S. Souleles, 2001.
"Do Liquidity Constraints and Interest Rates Matter for Consumer Behavior? Evidence from Credit Card Data,"
NBER Working Papers
8314, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- David B. Gross & Nicholas S. Souleles, 2002. "Do Liquidity Constraints And Interest Rates Matter For Consumer Behavior? Evidence From Credit Card Data," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 117(1), pages 149-185, February.
- Jeroen J.M. Kremers & Neil R. Ericsson & Juan J. Dolado, 1992.
"The power of cointegration tests,"
International Finance Discussion Papers
431, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Dolado, Juan José & Ericsson, N.R. & Kremers, J.J.M., 1992. "The Power of Cointegration Tests," Open Access publications from Universidad Carlos III de Madrid info:hdl:10016/3319, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid.
- Donald P. Morgan & Ian Toll, 1997. "Bad debt rising," Current Issues in Economics and Finance, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, issue Mar.
- Johansen, Søren & Juselius, Katarina, 1992. "Testing structural hypotheses in a multivariate cointegration analysis of the PPP and the UIP for UK," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 53(1-3), pages 211-244.
- Lucia Dunn & TaeHyung Kim, 1999. "Empirical Investigation of Credit Card Default," Working Papers 99-13, Ohio State University, Department of Economics.
- Brookes, Martin & Dicks, Mike & Pradhan, Mahmood, 1994. "An empirical model of mortgage arrears and repossessions," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 11(2), pages 134-144, April.
- Lydon, Reamonn & McCarthy, Yvonne, 2011.
"What Lies Beneath? Understanding Recent Trends in Irish Mortgage Arrears,"
Research Technical Papers
14/RT/11, Central Bank of Ireland.
- Reamonn Lyndon & Yvonne McCarthy, 2013. "What Lies Beneath? Understanding Recent Trends in Irish Mortgage Arrears," The Economic and Social Review, Economic and Social Studies, vol. 44(1), pages 117â150.
- Aron, Janine & Muellbauer, John, 2010.
"Modelling and Forecasting UK Mortgage Arrears and Possessions,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
7986, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Janine Aron & John Muellbauer, 2010. "Modelling and Forecasting UK Mortgage Arrears and Possessions," SERC Discussion Papers 0052, Spatial Economics Research Centre, LSE.
- Janine Aron & John Muellbauer, 2010. "Modelling and Forecasting UK Mortgage Arrears and Possessions," Economics Series Working Papers 499, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
- Petr Kadeřábek & Aleš Slabý & Josef Vodička, 2008. "Stress testing of probability of default of individuals," Prague Economic Papers, University of Economics, Prague, vol. 2008(4), pages 340-355.
- Rodriguez, Adolfo & Trucharte, Carlos, 2007. "Loss coverage and stress testing mortgage portfolios: A non-parametric approach," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 342-367, December.
- Kelly, John & Reilly, Aisling, 2005. "Credit Card Debt in Ireland," Quarterly Bulletin Articles, Central Bank of Ireland, pages 85-100, February.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Publications Team).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.