Early to Bed and Earlier to Rise: School, Maternal Employment, and Children’s Sleep
AbstractSchool-age children need 10-11 hours of sleep per night. It has been well-documented that lack of sleep leads to diminished cognitive performance and that people who sleep less are more likely to be overweight or obese. I use data from the American Time Use Survey (ATUS) to examine two factors that can potentially influence the amount of time children sleep: school and maternal employment. I find that school-age children sleep less when school is in session than during the summer, and that they get less sleep on school nights than on non-school nights. Children go to bed about 38 minutes earlier on school nights, but wake up about 72 minutes earlier on school days. This translates into about 34 minutes less sleep on school nights compared with non-school nights, and implies that these children have a cumulative sleep deficit of over two-and-a-half hours by the time they arrive at school Friday morning. In addition to the lost sleep time, the earlier wake-up times on school days appear to disrupt children’s natural sleep cycles. Maternal employment affects children’s sleep time in the summer, because children wake up earlier on days that their mothers work. But during the school year, maternal employment effects are dominated by school effects.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics in its series Working Papers with number 461.
Length: 33 pages
Date of creation: Jan 2013
Date of revision:
Contact details of provider:
Postal: 2 Massachusetts Avenue, N.E. Room 2860, Washington, D. C. 20212
Phone: (202) 606-5900
Fax: (202) 606-7890
Web page: http://www.bls.gov
More information through EDIRC
Sleep; school start times; maternal employment; time use;
Other versions of this item:
- Jay Stewart, 2014. "Early to bed and earlier to rise: school, maternal employment, and children’s sleep," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 12(1), pages 29-50, March.
- Stewart, Jay, 2013. "Early to Bed and Earlier to Rise: School, Maternal Employment, and Children's Sleep," IZA Discussion Papers 7143, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- J22 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Time Allocation and Labor Supply
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2013-02-08 (All new papers)
- NEP-DEM-2013-02-08 (Demographic Economics)
- NEP-EDU-2013-02-08 (Education)
- NEP-LAB-2013-02-08 (Labour Economics)
- NEP-LMA-2013-02-08 (Labor Markets - Supply, Demand, & Wages)
- NEP-NEU-2013-02-08 (Neuroeconomics)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Rachel Gordon & Robert Kaestner & Sanders Korenman, 2007. "The effects of maternal employment on child injuries and infectious disease," Demography, Springer, vol. 44(2), pages 307-333, May.
- Jay Stewart, 2010. "The The Timing of Maternal Work and Time with Children," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 64(1), pages 181-200, October.
- Anderson, Patricia M. & Butcher, Kristin F. & Levine, Phillip B., 2003.
"Maternal employment and overweight children,"
Journal of Health Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 22(3), pages 477-504, May.
- Patricia M. Anderson & Kristin F. Butcher & Phillip B. Levine, 2002. "Maternal Employment and Overweight Children," NBER Working Papers 8770, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Patricia M. Anderson & Kristin F. Butcher & Phillip B. Levine, 2002. "Maternal employment and overweight children," Working Paper Series WP-02-10, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
- Stewart, Jay, 2009.
"The Timing of Maternal Work and Time with Children,"
IZA Discussion Papers
4219, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Jay Stewart, 2009. "The Timing of Maternal Work and Time with Children," Working Papers 425, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.
- Charles L. Baum II, 2003. "Does Early Maternal Employment Harm Child Development? An Analysis of the Potential Benefits of Leave Taking," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 21(2), pages 381-408, April.
- Christopher J. Ruhm, 2000.
"Parental Employment and Child Cognitive Development,"
NBER Working Papers
7666, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Christopher J. Ruhm, 2004. "Parental Employment and Child Cognitive Development," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 39(1).
- Daniel S. Hamermesh & Harley Frazis & Jay Stewart, 2005. "Data Watch: The American Time Use Survey," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 19(1), pages 221-232, Winter.
- Morrill, Melinda Sandler, 2011. "The effects of maternal employment on the health of school-age children," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(2), pages 240-257, March.
- John Cawley & Feng Liu, 2007.
"Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity: A Search for Mechanisms in Time Use Data,"
NBER Working Papers
13600, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Cawley, John & Liu, Feng, 2012. "Maternal employment and childhood obesity: A search for mechanisms in time use data," Economics & Human Biology, Elsevier, vol. 10(4), pages 352-364.
- Jens Bonke & Jane Greve, 2012. "Children’s health-related life-styles: how parental child care affects them," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 10(4), pages 557-572, December.
- Susanne James-Burdumy, 2005. "The Effect of Maternal Labor Force Participation on Child Development," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 23(1), pages 177-211, January.
- Angela Fertig & Gerhard Glomm & Rusty Tchernis, 2006.
"The Connection Between Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity: Inspecting the Mechanisms,"
Caepr Working Papers
2006-020, Center for Applied Economics and Policy Research, Economics Department, Indiana University Bloomington.
- Angela Fertig & Gerhard Glomm & Rusty Tchernis, 2009. "The connection between maternal employment and childhood obesity: inspecting the mechanisms," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 7(3), pages 227-255, September.
- John Cawley & Feng Liu, 2007. "Mechanisms for the Association Between Maternal Employment and Child Cognitive Development," NBER Working Papers 13609, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Scott E. Carrell & Teny Maghakian & James E. West, 2011. "A's from Zzzz's? The Causal Effect of School Start Time on the Academic Achievement of Adolescents," American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, American Economic Association, vol. 3(3), pages 62-81, August.
- Harley Frazis & Jay Stewart, 2007. "Where Does the Time Go? Concepts and Measurement in the American Time Use Survey," NBER Chapters, in: Hard-to-Measure Goods and Services: Essays in Honor of Zvi Griliches, pages 73-97 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
Blog mentionsAs found by EconAcademics.org, the blog aggregator for Economics research:
- The lack of sleep of American school children
by Economic Logician in Economic Logic on 2013-02-15 15:13:00
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Gregory Kurtzon).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.