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Time to Work or Time to Play: The Effect of Student Employment on Homework, Sleep, and Screen Time

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Author Info

  • Charlene Marie Kalenkoski

    ()
    (Ohio University)

  • Sabrina Wulff Pabilonia

    ()
    (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics)

Abstract

We use detailed time-diary information on high school students’ daily activities from the 2003–2008 American Time Use Surveys (ATUS) to investigate the effects of employment on the time a student spends on homework and other major activities. Time-diary data are more detailed and accurate than data derived from responses to “usual activity” survey questions underlying other analyses and capture the immediate effects of working that may well accumulate over time to affect future outcomes. Our results suggest that employment decreases the time that high school students spend on homework, which is human-capital building, on all days, but also decreases screen time on non-school days, which may be considered unproductive time. Employed teens get more than the recommended amount of sleep on school days, and only slightly less on non-school days.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics in its series Working Papers with number 450.

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Length: 41 pages
Date of creation: Oct 2011
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:bls:wpaper:ec110080

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Keywords: teenagers; employment; high school; time allocation;

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References

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  1. Kalenkoski, Charlene Marie & Sabrina Wulff Pabilonia, 2004. "Parental Transfers, Student Achievement, and the Labor Supply of College Students," Working Papers 374, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.
  2. DeSimone Jeff, 2006. "Academic Performance and Part-Time Employment among High School Seniors," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 6(1), pages 1-36, August.
  3. Dustmann, C. & Soest, A.H.O. van, 2007. "Part-time work, school success and school leaving," Open Access publications from Tilburg University urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-355917, Tilburg University.
  4. Light, Audrey, 2001. "In-School Work Experience and the Returns to Schooling," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 19(1), pages 65-93, January.
  5. Nicola Persico & Andrew Postlewaite & Dan Silverman, 2001. "The Effect of Adolescent Experience on Labor Market Outcomes: The Case of Height, Third Version," PIER Working Paper Archive 04-013, Penn Institute for Economic Research, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania, revised 05 Jan 2004.
  6. V. Joseph Hotz & Lixin Xu & Marta Tienda & Avner Ahituv, 1999. "Are There Returns to the Wages of Young Men from Working While in School?," NBER Working Papers 7289, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. Todd R. Stinebrickner & Ralph Stinebrickner, 2007. "The Causal Effect of Studying on Academic Performance," NBER Working Papers 13341, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. Claude Montmarquette & Nathalie Viennot-Briot & Marcel Dagenais, 2007. "Dropout, School Performance, and Working while in School," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 89(4), pages 752-760, November.
  9. Sabrina Wulff Pabilonia, 2001. "Evidence on Youth Employment, Earnings, and Parental Transfers in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 36(4), pages 795-822.
  10. Eren,Ozkan & Henderson,J. Daniel, 2006. "The Impact of Homework on Student Achievement," Departmental Working Papers 0518, Southern Methodist University, Department of Economics, revised 12 May 2006.
  11. Light, Audrey, 1999. "High school employment, high school curriculum, and post-school wages," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 18(3), pages 291-309, June.
  12. David Neumark & Mary Joyce, 2000. "Evaluating School-To-Work Programs Using the New NLSY," NBER Working Papers 7719, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  13. Donna S. Rothstein, 2007. "High School Employment and Youths' Academic Achievement," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 42(1).
  14. John H. Tyler, 2003. "Using State Child Labor Laws to Identify the Effect of School-Year Work on High School Achievement," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 21(2), pages 353-380, April.
  15. Charlene M. Kalenkoski & David C. Ribar & Leslie S. Stratton, 2009. "How do Adolescents Spell Time Use?," Working Papers 0904, VCU School of Business, Department of Economics.
  16. Amemiya, Takeshi, 1973. "Regression Analysis when the Dependent Variable is Truncated Normal," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 41(6), pages 997-1016, November.
  17. Stinebrickner, Ralph & Stinebrickner, T.R.Todd R., 2004. "Time-use and college outcomes," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 121(1-2), pages 243-269.
  18. Kuhn, Peter J. & Weinberger, Catherine, 2002. "Leadership Skills and Wages," IZA Discussion Papers 482, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  19. Christopher J. Ruhm, 1995. "Is High School Employment Consumption or Investment?," NBER Working Papers 5030, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  20. Aksoy, Tevfik & Link, Charles R., 2000. "A panel analysis of student mathematics achievement in the US in the 1990s: does increasing the amount of time in learning activities affect math achievement?," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 19(3), pages 261-277, June.
  21. Nicola Persico & Andrew Postlewaite & Dan Silverman, 2004. "The Effect of Adolescent Experience on Labor Market Outcomes: The Case of Height," NBER Working Papers 10522, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  22. John M. Barron & Bradley T. Ewing & Glen R. Waddell, 2000. "The Effects Of High School Athletic Participation On Education And Labor Market Outcomes," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 82(3), pages 409-421, August.
  23. Gerald S. Oettinger, 1999. "Does high school employment affect high school academic performance?," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 53(1), pages 136-151, October.
  24. Michael, Robert T & Tuma, Nancy Brandon, 1984. "Youth Employment: Does Life Begin at 16?," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 2(4), pages 464-76, October.
  25. Charlene Kalenkoski & Sabrina Pabilonia, 2009. "Does Working While in High School Reduce U.S. Study Time?," Social Indicators Research, Springer, vol. 93(1), pages 117-121, August.
  26. David Roodman, 2011. "Fitting fully observed recursive mixed-process models with cmp," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 11(2), pages 159-206, June.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Scheffel, Juliane, 2013. "Does Work-Time Flexibility Really Improve the Reconciliation of Family and Work?," Annual Conference 2013 (Duesseldorf): Competition Policy and Regulation in a Global Economic Order 79992, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
  2. Bhuller, Manudeep & Mogstad, Magne & Salvanes, Kjell G., 2014. "Life Cycle Earnings, Education Premiums and Internal Rates of Return," IZA Discussion Papers 8316, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  3. Darolia, Rajeev, 2014. "Working (and studying) day and night: Heterogeneous effects of working on the academic performance of full-time and part-time students," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 38-50.

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