The Evolution of Confidence for European Consumers and Businesses in France, Germany and Italy
AbstractThe paper examines the evolution of consumer and business confidence indexes in France, Germany and Italy since the mid-eighties, using regressions of the indexes on a set of common macroeconomic variables for each country. Comparison of the results across agents (i.e. consumers and entrepreneurs in the same country) and across countries highlights some differences in behaviour that have emerged in the last fifteen years. In particular, the paper inquires into the causes of the recent break in the relationship between the consumer and business confidence indexes.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area in its series Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) with number 406.
Date of creation: Jun 2001
Date of revision:
firms and consumers confidence index;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- E32 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles - - - Business Fluctuations; Cycles
- E37 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles - - - Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications
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