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Forecasting Inflation with the M1-VECM: Part Two

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  • Engert, Walter
  • Hendry, Scott

Abstract

A central bank's main concern is the general direction of future inflation, and not transitory fluctuations of the inflation rate. As a result, this paper is concerned with forecasting a simple measure of the trend of inflation, the eight-quarter CPI-inflation rate. The primary objective is to improve the M1-based vector-error-correction model (VECM) developed by Hendry (1995), by imposing a set of equilibrium conditions to better anchor the long-run behaviour of interest rates, the exchange rate and the output gap in the model. These changes provide for greater confidence in the dynamic properties of the model, especially over a longer time horizon. This extended-VECM is shown to provide considerable leading information about inflation, forecasting the eight-quarter inflation rate with relatively small errors. The authors also stress that, to be most useful for monetary policy, inflation forecasts should explicitly indicate the range of uncertainty inherent in forecasting inflation with a long lead. For example, forecasts should explicitly consider confidence bands around forecasted outcomes, which is illustrated with the extended VECM developed in this paper. Finally, the paper emphasizes that monetary policy is probably best-served by an eclectic approach in which policy judgements are based on input from models that summarize different paradigms of the transmission mechanism, or that use different technical approaches.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Bank of Canada in its series Working Papers with number 98-6.

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Length: 44 pages
Date of creation: 1998
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:bca:bocawp:98-6

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Related research

Keywords: Economic models; Inflation and prices; Monetary aggregates;

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References

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  1. Pesaran, M.H. & Timmermann, A., 1990. "A Simple, Non-Parametric Test Of Predictive Performance," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 9021, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
  2. David R. Johnson, 1990. "Co-integration, Error Correction, and Purchasing Power Parity between Canada and the United States," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 23(4), pages 839-55, November.
  3. Hendry, David F, 1986. "Econometric Modelling with Cointegrated Variables: An Overview," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 48(3), pages 201-12, August.
  4. Alston Flynn, N. & Boucher, Janice L., 1993. "Tests of long-run Purchasing Power Parity using alternative methodologies," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 109-122.
  5. Fung, Ben Siu-cheong & Kasumovich, Marcel, 1998. "Monetary shocks in the G-6 countries: Is there a puzzle?," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(3), pages 575-592, October.
  6. Armour, J. & Atta-Mensah, J. & Engert, W. & Hendry, S., 1996. "A Distant-Early-Warning Model of Inflation Based on M1 Disequilibria," Working Papers 96-5, Bank of Canada.
  7. Scott Hendry, 1995. "Long-Run Demand for M1," Macroeconomics 9511001, EconWPA.
  8. Stephen G. Cecchetti, 1996. "Practical issues in monetary policy targeting," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, issue Q I, pages 2-15.
  9. St-Amant, P. & van Norden, S., 1997. "Measurement of the Output Gap: A Discussion of Recent Research at the Bank of Canada," Technical Reports 79, Bank of Canada.
  10. Robert A. Amano & Simon van Norden, 1995. "Oil Prices and the Rise and Fall of the U.S. Real Exchange Rate," International Finance 9502001, EconWPA.
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Cited by:
  1. Martha Misas Arango & Enrique López Enciso & Luis Fernando Melo velandia, 1999. "La Inflación Desde Una Perspectiva Monetaria : Un Modelo P* Para Colombia," BORRADORES DE ECONOMIA 003028, BANCO DE LA REPÚBLICA.
  2. Domac, Ilker, 2004. "Explaining and forecasting inflation in Tukey," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3287, The World Bank.
  3. David Longworth & Brian O´Reilly, 2002. "The Monetary Policy Transmission Mechanism and Policy Rules in Canada," Central Banking, Analysis, and Economic Policies Book Series, in: Norman Loayza & Klaus Schmidt-Hebbel & Norman Loayza (Series Editor) & Klaus Schmidt-Hebbel (Series (ed.), Monetary Policy: Rules and Transmission Mechanisms, edition 1, volume 4, chapter 13, pages 357-392 Central Bank of Chile.
  4. Engert, Walter & Selody, Jack, 1998. "Uncertainty and Multiple Paradigms of the Transmission Mechanism," Working Papers 98-7, Bank of Canada.
  5. Marc-André Gosselin & Greg Tkacz, 2001. "Evaluating Factor Models: An Application to Forecasting Inflation in Canada," Working Papers 01-18, Bank of Canada.
  6. Jeannine Bailliu & Daniel Garcés & Mark Kruger & Miguel Messmacher, 2003. "Explaining and Forecasting Inflation in Emerging Markets: The Case of Mexico," Working Papers 03-17, Bank of Canada.

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