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How Do You Pay? The Role of Incentives at the Point-of-Sale

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  • Carlos Arango
  • Kim Huynh
  • Leonard Sabetti

Abstract

This paper uses discrete-choice models to quantify the role of consumer socioeconomic characteristics, payment instrument attributes, and transaction features on the probability of using cash, debit card, or credit card at the point-of-sale. We use the Bank of Canada 2009 Method of Payment Survey, a two-part survey among adult Canadians containing a detailed questionnaire and a three-day shopping diary. We find that cash is still used intensively at low value transactions due to speed, merchant acceptance, and low costs. Debit and credit cards are used more frequently for higher transaction values where safety, record keeping, the ability to delay payment and credit card rewards gain prominence. We present estimates of the elasticity of using a credit card with respect to credit card rewards. Reward elasticities are a key element in understanding the impact of retail payment pricing regulation on consumer payment instrument usage and welfare.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Bank of Canada in its series Working Papers with number 11-23.

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Length: 40 pages
Date of creation: 2011
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:bca:bocawp:11-23

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Keywords: Bank notes; Econometric and statistical methods; Financial services;

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References

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  1. Simon, John & Smith, Kylie & West, Tim, 2010. "Price incentives and consumer payment behaviour," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(8), pages 1759-1772, August.
  2. Scholnick, Barry & Massoud, Nadia & Saunders, Anthony & Carbo-Valverde, Santiago & Rodríguez-Fernández, Francisco, 2008. "The economics of credit cards, debit cards and ATMs: A survey and some new evidence," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(8), pages 1468-1483, August.
  3. Von Kalckreuth, Ulf & Schmidt, Tobias & Stix, Helmut, 2011. "Using cash to monitor liquidity - implications for payments, currency demand and withdrawal behavior," Working Paper Series 1385, European Central Bank.
  4. Ron Borzekowski & Elizabeth K. Kiser & Shaista Ahmed, 2006. "Consumers' use of debit cards: patterns, preferences, and price response," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2006-16, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  5. Irina A. Telyukova & Randall Wright, 2007. "A model of money and credit, with application to the credit card debt puzzle," Working Paper 0711, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland.
  6. Fumiko Hayashi & Stuart E. Wiener, 2006. "Interchange fees in Australia, the UK, and the United States : matching theory and practice," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, issue Q III, pages 75-112.
  7. Ron Borzekowski & Elizabeth K. Kiser, 2006. "The choice at the checkout: quantifying demand across payment instruments," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2006-17, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  8. Carlos Arango & Dylan Hogg & Alyssa Lee, 2012. "Why Is Cash (Still) So Entrenched? Insights from the Bank of Canada’s 2009 Methods-of-Payment Survey," Discussion Papers 12-2, Bank of Canada.
  9. Sumit Agarwal & Sujit Chakravorti & Anna Lunn, 2010. "Why do banks reward their customers to use their credit cards?," Working Paper Series WP-2010-19, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
  10. Nicole Jonker & Anneke Kosse, 2009. "The impact of survey design on research outcomes: A case study of seven pilots measuring cash usage in the Netherlands," DNB Working Papers 221, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
  11. Carlos Arango & Varya Taylor, 2009. "The Role of Convenience and Risk in Consumers' Means of Payment," Discussion Papers 09-8, Bank of Canada.
  12. Robin A. Prager & Mark D. Manuszak & Elizabeth K. Kiser & Ron Borzekowski, 2009. "Interchange fees and payment card networks: economics, industry developments, and policy issues," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2009-23, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  13. Carlos Arango & Angelika Welte, 2012. "The Bank of Canada’s 2009 Methods-of-Payment Survey: Methodology and Key Results," Discussion Papers 12-6, Bank of Canada.
  14. Oz Shy & Zhu Wang, 2011. "Why Do Payment Card Networks Charge Proportional Fees?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 101(4), pages 1575-90, June.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Ben Fung & Kim Huynh & Leonard Sabetti, 2012. "The Impact of Retail Payment Innovations on Cash Usage," Working Papers 12-14, Bank of Canada.
  2. Carlos Arango & Dylan Hogg & Alyssa Lee, 2012. "Why Is Cash (Still) So Entrenched? Insights from the Bank of Canada’s 2009 Methods-of-Payment Survey," Discussion Papers 12-2, Bank of Canada.
  3. von Kalckreuth, Ulf & Schmidt, Tobias & Stix, Helmut, 2009. "Choosing and using payment instruments: evidence from German microdata," Discussion Paper Series 1: Economic Studies 2009,36, Deutsche Bundesbank, Research Centre.
  4. Naoki Wakamori & Angelika Welte, 2012. "Why Do Shoppers Use Cash? Evidence from Shopping Diary Data," Working Papers 12-24, Bank of Canada.
  5. Jonathan Chiu & Tsz-Nga Wong, 2014. "E-Money: Efficiency, Stability and Optimal Policy," Working Papers 14-16, Bank of Canada.
  6. Eschelbach, Martina & Schmidt, Tobias, 2013. "Precautionary motives in short-term cash management: Evidence from German POS transactions," Discussion Papers 38/2013, Deutsche Bundesbank, Research Centre.
  7. Shy, Oz & Stavins, Joanna, 2014. "Merchant steering of consumer payment choice: evidence from a 2012 Diary survey," Working Papers 14-1, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
  8. John Bagnall & David Bounie & Kim P. Huynh & Anneke Kosse & Tobias Schmidt & Scott Schuh & Helmut Stix, 2014. "Consumer Cash Usage: A Cross-Country Comparison with Payment Diary Survey Data," Working Papers 192, Oesterreichische Nationalbank (Austrian Central Bank).
  9. Camera, Gabriele & Casari, Marco & Bortolotti, Stefania, 2014. "An experiment on retail payments systems," SAFE Working Paper Series 49, Research Center SAFE - Sustainable Architecture for Finance in Europe, Goethe University Frankfurt.
  10. Tamás Briglevics & Oz Shy, 2014. "Why Don’t Most Merchants Use Price Discounts to Steer Consumer Payment Choice?," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer, vol. 44(4), pages 367-392, June.
  11. Michael Cohen & Marc Rysman, 2012. "Payment choice with consumer panel data," Working Papers 13, University of Connecticut, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Charles J. Zwick Center for Food and Resource Policy.
  12. Sergei Koulayev & Marc Rysman & Scott Schuh & Joanna Stavins, 2012. "Explaining adoption and use of payment instruments by U. S. consumers," Working Papers 12-14, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
  13. Michael Cohen & Marc Rysman, 2013. "Payment choice with consumer panel data," Working Papers 13-6, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
  14. Wang, Zhu & Wolman, Alexander L., 2014. "Payment Choice and the Future of Currency: Insights from Two Billion Retail Transactions," Working Paper 14-9, Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond.
  15. Tamás Briglevics & Oz Shy, 2012. "Why don’t most merchants use price discounts to steer consumer payment choice?," Public Policy Discussion Paper 12-9, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
  16. Nicole Jonker & Anneke Kosse & Lola Hern�ndez, 2012. "Cash usage in the Netherlands: How much, where, when, who and whenever one wants?," DNB Occasional Studies 1002, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
  17. Carlos Arango & Angelika Welte, 2012. "The Bank of Canada’s 2009 Methods-of-Payment Survey: Methodology and Key Results," Discussion Papers 12-6, Bank of Canada.
  18. John Galbraith & Greg Tkacz, 2013. "Nowcasting GDP: Electronic Payments, Data Vintages and the Timing of Data Releases," CIRANO Working Papers 2013s-25, CIRANO.

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