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The Effect of Adjustment Costs and Organizational Change on Productivity in Canada: Evidence from Aggregate Data

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  • Danny Leung

Abstract

A basic neoclassical model of production is often used to assess the contribution of investment to output growth. In the model, investment raises the capital stock and output growth increases in proportion to the growth in capital. It has been argued, however, that computers, as a "general purpose technology," lead to process innovations and facilitate organizational coinvestments. Since there may be a learning period before firms realize the full potential of the new technology and begin to implement new processes, there may be a lag between the growth in investment and its benefits. In fact, during periods of rapid adoption of new technologies and equipment, firms may incur adjustment costs and struggle to maintain previous levels of output. Using aggregate annual Canadian data from 1961 to 2001, the author explores the magnitude of the effect that investment in new technology, in the form of new computer hardware, can have on output growth. He finds that such investment has a positive effect on output growth that cannot be explained by growth in inputs. This effect, however, is not instantaneous and is strongest only three years after the initial investment. Furthermore, the author's findings suggest that the effect of computer hardware investment has grown over time.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Bank of Canada in its series Working Papers with number 04-1.

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Length: 44 pages
Date of creation: 2004
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:bca:bocawp:04-1

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Keywords: Productivity;

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References

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  1. Matthew D. Shapiro, 1985. "Capital Utilization and Capital Accumulation: Theory and Evidence," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 736, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
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  3. Brynjolfsson, Erik & Hitt, Lorin M., 2004. "Computing Productivity: Firm-Level Evidence," Working papers 4210-01, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
  4. Michael T. Kiley, 1999. "Computers and growth with costs of adjustment: will the future look like the past?," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 1999-36, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
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  6. Alain Paquet & Benoit Robidoux, 1997. "Issues on the Measurement of the Solow Residual and the Testing of its Exogeneity: a Tale of Two Countries," Cahiers de recherche CREFE / CREFE Working Papers 51, CREFE, Université du Québec à Montréal.
  7. Baldwin, John R. & Harchaoui, Tarek, 2002. "Productivity Growth in Canada," Productivity Growth in Canada, Statistics Canada, Economic Analysis, number stcb6e, December.
  8. Susanto Basu & John G. Fernald & Nicholas Oulton & Sylaja Srinivasan, 2003. "The Case of the Missing Productivity Growth: Or, Does Information technology explain why productivity accelerated in the United States but not the United Kingdom?," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 2021, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
  9. Lichtenberg, Frank R, 1988. "Estimation of the Internal Adjustment Costs Model Using Longitudinal Establishment Data," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 70(3), pages 421-30, August.
  10. Robert E. Lucas & Jr., 1967. "Adjustment Costs and the Theory of Supply," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 75, pages 321.
  11. Edward N. Wolff, 2002. "Productivity, computerization, and skill change," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta, issue Q3, pages 63-87.
  12. Stephen D. Oliner & Daniel E. Sichel, 2002. "Information technology and productivity: where are we now and where are we going?," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta, issue Q3, pages 15-44.
  13. Elena Arnal & Wooseok Ok & Raymond Torres, 2001. "Knowledge, Work Organisation and Economic Growth," OECD Labour Market and Social Policy Occasional Papers 50, OECD Publishing.
  14. Stiroh, Kevin J, 2002. "Are ICT Spillovers Driving the New Economy?," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 48(1), pages 33-57, March.
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  16. Hashmat Khan & Marjorie Santos, 2002. "Contribution of ICT Use to Output and Labour-Productivity Growth in Canada," Working Papers 02-7, Bank of Canada.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Richard Dion & Robert Fay, 2008. "Understanding Productivity: A Review of Recent Technical Research," Discussion Papers 08-3, Bank of Canada.
  2. Petr Hanel, 2007. "Productivity and innovation: an overview of the issues," Cahiers de recherche 07-22, Departement d'Economique de la Faculte d'administration à l'Universite de Sherbrooke.
  3. M. Ayhan Kose & Roberto Cardarelli, 2004. "Economic Integration, Business Cycle, and Productivity in North America," IMF Working Papers 04/138, International Monetary Fund.
  4. Jason Allen & Walter Engert & Ying Liu, 2006. "Are Canadian Banks Efficient? A Canada--U.S. Comparison," Working Papers 06-33, Bank of Canada.
  5. Danny Leung & Yi Zheng, 2008. "What Affects MFP in the Long-Run? Evidence from Canadian Industries," Working Papers 08-4, Bank of Canada.
  6. Someshwar Rao & Andrew Sharpe & Jeremy Smith, 2005. "An Analysis of the Labour Productivity Growth Slowdown in Canada since 2000," International Productivity Monitor, Centre for the Study of Living Standards, vol. 10, pages 3-23, Spring.
  7. Dirk Pilat, 2005. "Canada's Productivity Performance in International Perspective," International Productivity Monitor, Centre for the Study of Living Standards, vol. 10, pages 24-44, Spring.
  8. Jean-Francois Arsenault & Andrew Sharpe, 2008. "An Analysis of the Causes of Weak Labour Productivity Growth in Canada since 2000," International Productivity Monitor, Centre for the Study of Living Standards, vol. 16, pages 14-39, Spring.

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