Universal patterns of inequality
AbstractProbability distributions of money, income, and energy consumption per capita are studied for ensembles of economic agents. The principle of entropy maximization for partitioning of a limited resource gives exponential distributions for the investigated variables. A non-equilibrium difference of money temperatures between different systems generates net fluxes of money and population. To describe income distribution, a stochastic process with additive and multiplicative components is introduced. The resultant distribution interpolates between exponential at the low end and power law at the high end, in agreement with the empirical data for USA. We show that the increase of income inequality in USA originates primarily from the increase of the income fraction going to the upper tail, which now exceeds 20% of the total income. Analyzing the data from the World Resources Institute, we find that the distribution of energy consumption per capita around the world can be approximately described by the exponential function. Comparing the data for 1990, 2000, and 2005, we discuss the effect of globalization on the inequality of energy consumption.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by arXiv.org in its series Papers with number 0912.4898.
Date of creation: Dec 2009
Date of revision: Apr 2010
Publication status: Published in New Journal of Physics 12, 075032 (2010)
Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://arxiv.org/
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Victor M. Yakovenko & J. Barkley Rosser, 2009. "Colloquium: Statistical mechanics of money, wealth, and income," Papers 0905.1518, arXiv.org, revised Dec 2009.
- Yoshi Fujiwara & Wataru Souma & Hideaki Aoyama & Taisei Kaizoji & Masanao Aoki, 2002.
"Growth and Fluctuations of Personal Income,"
- Fujiwara, Yoshi & Souma, Wataru & Aoyama, Hideaki & Kaizoji, Taisei & Aoki, Masanao, 2003. "Growth and fluctuations of personal income," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 321(3), pages 598-604.
- Fiaschi, Davide & Marsili, Matteo, 2012.
"Distribution of wealth and incomplete markets: Theory and empirical evidence,"
Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization,
Elsevier, vol. 81(1), pages 243-267.
- Davide Fiaschi - Matteo Marsili, 2009. "Distribution of Wealth and Incomplete Markets: Theory and Empirical Evidence," Discussion Papers 2009/83, Dipartimento di Economia e Management (DEM), University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.
- Newby, Michael & Behr, Adam & Feizabadi, Mitra Shojania, 2011. "Investigating the distribution of personal income obtained from the recent U.S. data," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 28(3), pages 1170-1173, May.
- Park, Ji-Won & Kim, Chae Un & Isard, Walter, 2012. "Permit allocation in emissions trading using the Boltzmann distribution," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 391(20), pages 4883-4890.
- F. Chami Figueira & N. J. Moura Jr & Marcelo B. Ribeiro, 2010.
"The Gompertz-Pareto Income Distribution,"
- Chami Figueira, F. & Moura, N.J. & Ribeiro, M.B., 2011. "The Gompertz–Pareto income distribution," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 390(4), pages 689-698.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (arXiv administrators).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.