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GINI DP 28: The impact of indirect taxes and imputed rent on inequality: A comparison with cash transfers and direct taxes in five EU countries

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  • Francesco Figari

    ()
    (University of Insubria)

  • Paulus, A. (Alari)

Abstract

This paper examines the redistributive impact of imputed rent (private and public) and indirect taxes (value added tax and excises), comparing this with the effects of cash transfers and direct taxes in five EU countries. The extended income concept, taking into account both imputed rent and indirect taxes, provides a more reliable picture of inequality differences across countries. Our results show that indirect taxes have a regressive effect with respect to income in all countries considered but always smaller in magnitude than other tax-benefit instruments. Imputed rent reduces overall inequality in particular where the prevalence of individuals living in own accommodation is high even among the poorest (Greece) and where the contribution of the public imputed rent is large (the UK).

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by AIAS, Amsterdam Institute for Advanced Labour Studies in its series GINI Discussion Papers with number 28.

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Date of creation: Jan 2012
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Handle: RePEc:aia:ginidp:28

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Keywords: Imputed rent; indirect taxes; European Union; household income; microsimulation; EUROMOD. JEL: C81; H23; D63;

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  1. Callan, Tim & Leventi, Chrysa & Levy, Horacio & Matsaganis, Manos & Paulus, Alari & Sutherland, Holly, 2011. "The distributional effects of austerity measures: a comparison of six EU countries," EUROMOD Working Papers EM6/11, EUROMOD at the Institute for Social and Economic Research.
  2. Alan J. Auerbach, 2006. "The Choice Between Income and Consumption Taxes: A Primer," NBER Working Papers 12307, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Aaberge, Rolf & Bhuller, Manudeep & Langørgen, Audun & Mogstad, Magne, 2010. "The Distributional Impact of Public Services When Needs Differ," IZA Discussion Papers 4826, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  4. André Decoster & Jason Loughrey & Cathal O'Donoghue & Dirk Verwerft, 2010. "How regressive are indirect taxes? A microsimulation analysis for five European countries," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 29(2), pages 326-350.
  5. Atkinson, A. B. & Stiglitz, J. E., 1976. "The design of tax structure: Direct versus indirect taxation," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 6(1-2), pages 55-75.
  6. Benedek, Dora & Lelkes, Orsolya, 2009. "The distributional implications of income underreporting in Hungary," MPRA Paper 17308, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  7. Rolf Aaberge & Audun Langørgen & Magne Mogstad & Marit Østensen, 2008. "The Impact of Local Public Services and Geographical Cost of Living Differences on Poverty Estimates," Discussion Papers, Research Department of Statistics Norway 551, Research Department of Statistics Norway.
  8. Atkinson, Tony & Cantillon, Bea & Marlier, Eric & Nolan, Brian, 2002. "Social Indicators: The EU and Social Inclusion," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, Oxford University Press, number 9780199253494, October.
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