An Analysis of Scope Economies and Specialisation Efficiencies Among Thai Shrimp and Rice Smallholders
AbstractSmallholders increasingly combine shrimp culture with the more traditional rice enterprise in regions of Thailand suitable for raising shrimps. They can exploit cost complementarities in production by combining activities in these enterprises within their farming systems. At the same time, it makes them more susceptible to on-farm negative externalities between rice and shrimp production, in both directions, causing scope diseconomies. A stochastic input distance model is estimated using data on shrimp and rice production by 52 smallholder households. Results from the estimated model are used to establish whether scope economies or diseconomies exist and whether specialisation in either shrimp or rice production significantly influences technical efficiency on the sampled smallholdings. Significant scope economies were found to exist between the two enterprises among best-practice smallholders but they were offset by diversification inefficiencies beneath the frontier. Hence, specialisation in one of the two enterprises has two effects on productivity that operate in opposite directions. The first effect is a negative impact on productivity via loss of scope economies. The second effect is an increase in productivity by reaping specialisation efficiencies or, put another way, avoidance of diversification inefficiencies. If on-farm negative externalities between rice and shrimp production do exist, they appear to be strongly outweighed by cost complementarities on the frontier. It is likely that 'best-practice' smallholders are able to 'internalise' the negative externalities in both directions to a substantial degree. They achieve this 'internalisation' by regular use of fresh water in a semi-closed pond system of shrimp production that minimises pond contamination and protects them from the activities of surrounding producers who discharge effluent into the waterways or whose shrimp suffer from diseases. In addition to the degree of enterprise specialisation, the level of schooling of the household head and the tenure system in shrimp and rice production were identified as variables that significantly influence technical inefficiency. As expected, higher education is associated with lower technical inefficiency. Tenancy is also associated with lower technical inefficiency. Results indicate that a small but significant level of technical inefficiency exists, which means there is limited opportunity to expand crop output without resort to greater use of factor inputs or the introduction of improved production technologies.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by University of New England, School of Economics in its series Working Papers with number 12914.
Date of creation: 2004
Date of revision:
scope economies; specialisation efficiencies; input distance function; Thailand; smallholders; technical efficiency; Crop Production/Industries; Farm Management; Livestock Production/Industries;
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Ali, Ridwan & Alwang, Jeffrey & Siegel, Paul B., 1991. "Is export diversification the best way to achieve export growth and stability? A look at three African countries," Policy Research Working Paper Series 729, The World Bank.
- Battese, G E & Coelli, T J, 1995. "A Model for Technical Inefficiency Effects in a Stochastic Frontier Production Function for Panel Data," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 20(2), pages 325-32.
- Coelli, Tim & Fleming, Euan, 2004.
"Diversification economies and specialisation efficiencies in a mixed food and coffee smallholder farming system in Papua New Guinea,"
Blackwell, vol. 31(2-3), pages 229-239, December.
- Coelli, Tim J. & Fleming, Euan M., 2003. "Diversification Economies And Specialisation Efficiencies In A Mixed Food And Coffee Smallholder Farming System In Papua New Guinea," 2003 Annual Meeting, August 16-22, 2003, Durban, South Africa 25841, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
- Deller, Steven C & Chicoine, David L & Walzer, Norman, 1988. "Economies of Size and Scope in Rural Low-Volume Roads," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 70(3), pages 459-65, August.
- Kodde, David A & Palm, Franz C, 1986.
"Wald Criteria for Jointly Testing Equality and Inequality Restriction s,"
Econometric Society, vol. 54(5), pages 1243-48, September.
- Kodde, David A. & Palm, Franz C., 1986. "Wald criteria for jointly testing equality and inequality restrictions," Open Access publications from Maastricht University urn:nbn:nl:ui:27-5750, Maastricht University.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (AgEcon Search).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.