The Competitive and Welfare Effects of New Product Introduction: The Case of Crystal Pepsi
AbstractThe introduction of new products is an important method of competition in many markets. Towards understanding its impact on competition and welfare, this paper estimates the effects of Crystal Pepsi being introduced by PepsiCo. Estimating a structural model of the soft drink market, the competitive effect is decomposed into two parts: the effect on the prices of existing products from increased competition, and the effect of having additional product variety. I find that firms’ profit and consumer welfare both increased in response to the introduction of Crystal Pepsi, with the price effect accounting for nearly 90% of the gain in consumer surplus. The introduction of Crystal Pepsi is also used as an experiment to test the competitiveness of the soft drink market. Evidence of price collusion is found. In comparing the welfare impact of introducing Crystal Pepsi under price collusion and price competition, I find that social welfare increases more under collusion. Under competition, rivals of PepsiCo increase prices and, consequently, a new product introduction actually harms consumers; at the same time, PepsiCo’s profit gain is smaller. This finding suggests that firms have a stronger incentive to invest in R&D when they collude in price than when they compete in price.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by University of Connecticut, Food Marketing Policy Center in its series Research Reports with number 149938.
Date of creation: Nov 2008
Date of revision:
Contact details of provider:
Postal: 1376 Storrs Road, Unit 4021, Storrs, CT 06269-4021
Phone: (860) 486-1927
Fax: (860) 486-2461
Web page: http://www.fmpc.uconn.edu/
More information through EDIRC
New Product Introduction; Social Welfare; Market Structure; Random Coefficient Model; Marketing; L11; L13; L49; L66; O31;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- L11 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - Production, Pricing, and Market Structure; Size Distribution of Firms
- L13 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - Oligopoly and Other Imperfect Markets
- L49 - Industrial Organization - - Antitrust Issues and Policies - - - Other
- L66 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Manufacturing - - - Food; Beverages; Cosmetics; Tobacco
- O31 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Technological Change; Research and Development; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Innovation and Invention: Processes and Incentives
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Aviv Nevo, 2001.
"New Products, Quality Changes and Welfare Measures Computed From Estimated Demand Systems,"
NBER Working Papers
8425, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Aviv Nevo, 2003. "New Products, Quality Changes, and Welfare Measures Computed from Estimated Demand Systems," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 85(2), pages 266-275, May.
- K. Sudhir & Vrinda Kadiyali & Vithala R. Rao, 2001. "Structural Analysis of Manufacturer Pricing in the Presence of a Strategic Retailer," Yale School of Management Working Papers ysm229, Yale School of Management.
- Matthew Shum, 2004. "Does Advertising Overcome Brand Loyalty? Evidence from the Breakfast-Cereals Market," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 13(2), pages 241-272, 06.
- Robert Barsky & Mark Bergen & Shantanu Dutta & Daniel Levy, 2002.
"What Can the Price Gap between Branded and Private Label Products Tell Us about Markups?,"
2002-02, Department of Economics, Bar-Ilan University.
- Robert B. Barsky & Mark Bergen & Shantanu Dutta & Daniel Levy, 2003. "What Can the Price Gap between Branded and Private-Label Products Tell Us about Markups?," NBER Chapters, in: Scanner Data and Price Indexes, pages 165-228 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Robert Barsky & Mark Bergen & Shantanu Dutta & Daniel Levy, 2001. "What Can the Price Gap between Branded and Private Label Products Tell Us about Markups?," NBER Working Papers 8426, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Nevo, Aviv, 1999.
"Measuring Market Power in the Ready-to-Eat Cereal Industry,"
Competition Policy Center, Working Paper Series
qt7cm5p858, Competition Policy Center, Institute for Business and Economic Research, UC Berkeley.
- Nevo, Aviv, 2001. "Measuring Market Power in the Ready-to-Eat Cereal Industry," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 69(2), pages 307-42, March.
- Aviv Nevo, 2003. "Measuring Market Power in the Ready-to-Eat Cereal Industry," Microeconomics 0303006, EconWPA.
- Nevo, Aviv, 1998. "Measuring Market Power in the Ready-To-Eat Cereal Industry," Research Reports 25164, University of Connecticut, Food Marketing Policy Center.
- Aviv Nevo, 1998. "Measuring Market Power in the Ready-to-Eat Cereal Industry," NBER Working Papers 6387, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- K. Sudhir, 2001. "Structural Analysis of Manufacturer Pricing in the Presence of a Strategic Retailer," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 20(3), pages 244-264, October.
- Imbens, G.W. & Lancaster, T., 1991.
"Combining Micro and Macro Data in Microeconometric Models,"
Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers
1578, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
- Imbens, Guido W & Lancaster, Tony, 1994. "Combining Micro and Macro Data in Microeconometric Models," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 61(4), pages 655-80, October.
- Hendel, Igal, 1999. "Estimating Multiple-Discrete Choice Models: An Application to Computerization Returns," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 66(2), pages 423-46, April.
- Trajtenberg, Manuel, 1989. "The Welfare Analysis of Product Innovations, with an Application to Computed Tomography Scanners," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 97(2), pages 444-79, April.
- Pakes, Ariel & Berry, Steven & Levinsohn, James A, 1993. "Applications and Limitations of Some Recent Advances in Empirical Industrial Organization: Price Indexes and the Analysis of Environmental Change," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 83(2), pages 241-46, May.
- Berry, Steven & Levinsohn, James & Pakes, Ariel, 1995. "Automobile Prices in Market Equilibrium," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 63(4), pages 841-90, July.
- Langan, Glenn E. & Cotterill, Ronald W., 1994. "Estimating Brand Level Demand Elasticities and Measuring Market Power for Regular Carbonated Soft Drinks," Working Papers 116168, Regional Research Project NE-165 Private Strategies, Public Policies, and Food System Performance.
- Hausman, Jerry A & Leonard, Gregory K, 2002. "The Competitive Effects of a New Product Introduction: A Case Study," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 50(3), pages 237-63, September.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (AgEcon Search).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.