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A Precariedade Do Transporte Rodoviário Brasileiro Para O Escoamento Da Produção De Soja Do Centro-Oeste: Situação E Perspectivas

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  • Capacle, Vivian Helena
  • Ramos, Pedro
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    Abstract

    A região Centro-Oeste do país se destaca como um pólo produtor de soja e essa produção é escoada, em sua maioria, por meio de rodovias. Pela crise fiscal do Estado, a partir dos anos 80, a malha rodoviária brasileira perde participação nos recursos públicos para investimentos em sua ampliação, conservação e restauração e, essa escassez de investimentos nas rodovias tem reflexos sobre a competitividade internacional da soja dos cerrados, uma vez que o principal modal utilizado para o escoamento dessa produção para os portos das Regiões Sul e Sudeste é o modal rodoviário cujas vias estão em estado precário de conservação, com destaque para trechos das rodovias BR 163 e BR 364 que são vias importantes na região do Centro-Oeste. Por conta disso, 25% da receita de vendas desta produção está comprometida com os custos internos de transportes, em decorrência da inadequação desse modal às características do produto e às longas distâncias percorridas aliado ao estado precário de conservação da malha rodoviária do país. Apontam-se perspectivas e possíveis soluções pela alternativa de concessões rodoviárias e de Parcerias Público-Privadas (PPP) para reverter o estado precário das rodovias brasileiras, além de analisar o uso de modais mais eficientes para o escoamento dessa produção. Concluí-se que os modais hidroviários e ferroviários são mais eficientes para o escoamento da soja do Centro-Oeste do país, em relação ao uso isolado da rodovia, em razão da maior eficiência energética e da maior produtividade para a movimentação de cargas de maior densidade à maiores distâncias, o que conferiria custos menores de circulação. É o momento de se pensar na matriz de transportes de cargas do país de forma a desenvolver a intermodalidade com uma oferta maior dos transportes hidroviários e ferroviários além de revitalizar a malha rodoviária para positivas contribuições à economia do país. ------------------------------------------------The Center-Western region of the country is known to be a soy production center and this deliver production is made by road´s. At the beginning of the 80's, because of a governmental fiscal crises, the road infra-structure and conservation lost its investment, due to the lost of participation on public resources and the lack of investment on Brazilian roads reflected on the soy international competition, since the main transportation used to deliver this product to the ports at the South and South-Eastern regions of the country, is made by road’s, which are in poor states of conservation, highlighting some parts of BR 163 and BR 364, which are very important roads to distribute the soy production at the Center-Western. For this reason, 25% of this products sales are already accounted for internal transportation costs, due to the inadequacy of the roads to the characteristics of this product and the long distances that have to be filled and the bad conservation state of the Brazilian roads. There are a few alternatives appointed, such as road concessions and Public-Private Partnership (PPP), the reverse the offal state of the Brazilian roads and to analyze the use of more efficient transportation modals. Concluding that the use of river and rail-road transportation modals are more efficient to transport the soy from the Center-Western region of the country, in relation to exclusive use of roads. This is due to a higher energetic and transportation efficiency due to the movement of higher density cargo at higher distances, what would reduce circulation costs. This is the moment to reflect on the cargo transportation matrix in the country, in such a form to develop a higher river and rail-road offer and to revitalize the roads for positive contributions to the countries economy.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Sociedade Brasileira de Economia, Administracao e Sociologia Rural (SOBER) in its series 46th Congress, July 20-23, 2008, Rio Branco, Acre, Brasil with number 109376.

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    Date of creation: Jul 2008
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    Handle: RePEc:ags:sbrfsr:109376

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    Web page: http://www.sober.org.br/
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    Keywords: Infra-Estrutura de Transportes; Rodovias; Soja; Competitividade; Transportation Infrastructure; Roads; Soy Bean; Competition; Agribusiness;

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