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Desenvolvimento Rural, Mulheres E Terra - Um Olhar Sobre Timor-Leste

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  • Narciso, Vanda Margarida De Jesus Dos Santos
  • Henriques, Pedro Damiao de Sousa
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    Abstract

    O caminho percorrido para que as questões do género e do desenvolvimento e em especial a sua interligação sejam assuntos importantes e alvo de atenção tanto académica como política, foi longo. Várias áreas do conhecimento, como a sociologia, a antropologia e a economia, contribuem para a construção do conhecimento neste domínio, a par de outras mais recentes como os estudos feministas e os estudos pós-coloniais. Como resultado, as teorias e os conceitos sobre a relação das mulheres com o desenvolvimento e os efeitos deste sobre as mulheres têm sido vários. O objectivo deste trabalho foi em primeiro lugar caracterizar o papel da mulher no desenvolvimento rural, identificando as suas funções, as principais abordagens utilizadas e a sua situação perante o enquadramento jurídico internacional. Em segundo lugar fazemos uma análise da situação da mulher em Timor-Leste, abarcando aspectos sociais, nomeadamente os papéis de género, da família, e o acesso aos recursos naturais. Faz-se igualmente uma leitura da situação da mulher perante o direito positivo e o sistema costumeiro. A análise recorreu a informação documental e a observações e dados recolhidos no local em 2000 e 2003. Os contributos que as mulheres de Timor-Leste poderão dar ao desenvolvimento do seu país está bastante condicionado pelas desigualdades de género presentes no direito consuetudinário, no qual destacamos o desigual acesso aos recursos naturais, com relevo para a terra. A HRBA parece ser a abordagem que melhor se adapta a uma integração plena da mulher no processo de desenvolvimento, ao defender a igualdade e a não discriminação das mulheres em qualquer circunstância, e ao apelar à formação e ao empoderamento das mulheres para o exercício dos seus direitos.---------------------------------------------It has been a long way, until both gender and development were recognized as important issues in academic and political arena. Several fields of science, such as sociology, anthropology, and economy contributed to the knowledge in this area, in addition to recent developments in feminist and pos-colonial studies. As a result, there are different gender approaches to development. The first objective of this paper is to examine the role of women in rural development, identifying their roles, the main gender approaches to development and women status under international law framework. The second aim is to analyze the position of women in East Timor with respect to social aspects, namely the gender roles, the family, access to natural resources and women status under the legal system and the traditional law. This analysis used documental sources of information and observations and data collected in field work in East Timor in 2000 and 2003. The contribution of East Timorese women to the development is heavy constrained by the gender inequality present in traditional/customary law, in which unequal access to natural resources, in special land, is relevant. The HRBA seems to be the best approach to a full integration of women in the development process, once it vindicates the right to equality and non discrimination and advocates training and empowerment as means to make women exercise their rights.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Sociedade Brasileira de Economia, Administracao e Sociologia Rural (SOBER) in its series 46th Congress, July 20-23, 2008, Rio Branco, Acre, Brasil with number 108612.

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    Date of creation: Jul 2008
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    Handle: RePEc:ags:sbrfsr:108612

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    Keywords: género; direitos à terra; desenvolvimento rural; Timor-Leste; gender; land rights; rural development; East Timor; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Labor and Human Capital;

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