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Saneamento Básico: Um Estudo Para Comunidades De Pequeno Porte

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  • Zapparoli, Irene Domenes
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    Abstract

    A degradação hídrica ambiental das cidades ribeirinhas, principalmente em comunidades de pequeno porte, está relacionada entre outras causas ao intenso turismo e a falta de sistema de coleta, remoção e tratamento de esgoto. Com uma poluição quase imperceptível e com carência de políticas ambientais a poluição acontece de forma lenta, aliada a urbanização rápida e de forma irracional. Este artigo tem como objetivo identificar os fundamentos teóricos do saneamento básico e analisar a sua concepção na política de preservação ambiental de com unidade de pequeno porte, com vistas à melhoria de qualidade de vida da população. O método consiste em revisão bibliográfica e pesquisa documental sobre saneamento básico. Para análise a pesquisa foi realizada com simulações, ou seja, foram tomados como base estudos feitos para outros municípios com populações de até 5.000 habitantes. Essa pesquisa permitiu algumas considerações, do ponto de vista técnico, as companhias de saneamento apresentam propostas viáveis de coleta, remoção, e tratamento de esgoto sanitário as cidades ribeirinhas, assim comunidades de pequeno porte podem ser beneficiadas com a implantação do sistema convencional de tratamento de esgotamento sanitário. Para atendimento de até 90% da população, com projeção para 2030, a obra terá um custo de, aproximadamente, R$ 2.900.000,00, com acréscimos de 80% nas contas pelo uso da água, somente se viabiliza se considerar o valor econômico ambiental. Outra possibilidade são as fossas sépticas e sumidouros com manutenção preventiva. Deste modo, Porto Rico e Porto São José poderiam prescindir do sistema de tratamento convencional de esgoto sanitário. O biossóldo, adubo orgânico proveniente das fossas sépticas poderão ser usado na agricultura local. --------------------------------------------The water environmental degradation of riverside cities, especially in small size communities, is related among other causes to the intense tourism and the lack of collection system, removal and sewer treatment. With an almost imperceptible pollution and with lack of environmental politics the pollution grows slowly, allied to the quick and irrational urbanization. This article has as objective identifying the theoretical background of the basic sanitation and to analyze its conception in the politics of environmental preservation of small size communities, with aim in the improvement of quality of life of the population. The method consists of bibliographical revision and documental research on the subject. The analysis and research were accomplished with simulations, in other words, It was taken as base studies made with other municipal districts with populations of up to 5.000 inhabitants. That research allowed some considerations; in a technical point of view, the companies of sanitation present viable proposals of collection, removal, and sewer treatment in riverside cities. The small size communities can be benefited with the implantation of the conventional system of sewer treatment. To attend to 90% of the cities population, and with projection for 2030, the service will have a cost of, approximately, R$ 2.900.000,00, with increments of 80% in the bills for the use of the water, and it will only be possible if it is considered the economical environmental value. Another possibility is the septic tanks and drains with preventive maintenance. This way, of small size communities could put in use of the system of conventional treatment of sanitary. The biosolid, originated from organic fertilizer coming from the septic tanks can be used in the local agriculture.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Sociedade Brasileira de Economia, Administracao e Sociologia Rural (SOBER) in its series 46th Congress, July 20-23, 2008, Rio Branco, Acre, Brasil with number 108592.

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    Date of creation: Jul 2008
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    Handle: RePEc:ags:sbrfsr:108592

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    Web page: http://www.sober.org.br/
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    Keywords: aneamento; Comunidades; Recursos hídricos; Basic sanitation; small size communities; Environmental Economics and Policy;

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