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Sustainable Management Of Private And Communal Lands In Northern Ethiopia

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  • Gebremedhin, Berhanu
  • Swinton, Scott M.

Abstract

Land degradation in sub-Saharan Africa reduces the land's potential productivity through soil erosion, nutrient depletion, soil moisture stress, deforestation and overgrazing. Efforts to reverse land degradation require an understanding of why it takes place and what factors govern farmers' willingness to invest in land conservation. These factors differ importantly between private and public lands. This study synthesizes results from analyses of the technological and institutional factors determining the adoption of natural resource conservation at both the household and the community levels in the northern Ethiopian region of Tigray. Using 1995-96 data from 250 Tigray farm household interviews, it first examines private land management, focusing on 1) What factors determine farmer perceptions of the severity and yield impact of soil erosion? 2) Is soil conservation profitable, and if so, then under what conditions? 3) What determines farmers' illingness to invest in soil conservation? Using 1998-99 data from a survey of 100 Tigray villages, it proceeds to examine the management of communal lands (grazing lands and woodlots), focusing on 4) What makes communities engage in collective NRM activities? 5) What determines the ffectiveness of collective NRM? At the household level, results highlight the importance of (1) the physical characteristics of plots and villages in shaping farmer perceptions, (2) the land tenure horizon and access to capital in determining willingness to invest in soil conservation. At the community level, they highlight the importance of population density, agricultural potential, as well as access to markets and external rganizations in determining community collective action and its effectiveness in establishing and managing protected grazing areas and woodlots.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Michigan State University, Department of Agricultural, Food, and Resource Economics in its series Staff Papers with number 11680.

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Date of creation: 2001
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Handle: RePEc:ags:midasp:11680

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Keywords: Land Economics/Use;

References

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  1. Otsuka, Keijiro & Place, Frank, 2001. "Land tenure and natural resource management," Food policy statements 34, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  2. Baland, Jean-Marie & Platteau, Jean-Philippe, 2000. "Halting Degradation of Natural Resources: Is There a Role for Rural Communities?," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198290612, September.
  3. Gebremedhin, Berhanu & Pender, John & Tesfay, Girmay, 2003. "Community natural resource management: the case of woodlots in Northern Ethiopia," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 8(01), pages 129-148, February.
  4. Shiferaw, Bekele & Holden, Stein T., 1998. "Resource degradation and adoption of land conservation technologies 1n the Ethiopian Highlands: A case study in Andit Tid, North Shewa," Agricultural Economics: The Journal of the International Association of Agricultural Economists, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 18(3), May.
  5. Cragg, John G, 1971. "Some Statistical Models for Limited Dependent Variables with Application to the Demand for Durable Goods," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 39(5), pages 829-44, September.
  6. Feder, Gershon & Just, Richard E & Zilberman, David, 1985. "Adoption of Agricultural Innovations in Developing Countries: A Survey," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 33(2), pages 255-98, January.
  7. Sureshwaran, Suresh & Londhe, S.R. & Frazier, P., 1996. "Factors Influencing Soil Conservation Decisions in Developing Countries: A Case Study of Upland Farmers in the Philippines," Journal of Agribusiness, Agricultural Economics Association of Georgia, vol. 14(1).
  8. Rasmussen, Lise Nordvig & Meinzen-Dick, Ruth Suseela, 1995. "Local organizations for natural resource management: lessons from theoretical and empirical literature," EPTD discussion papers 11, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  9. Shiferaw, Bekele & Holden, Stein T., 2000. "Policy instruments for sustainable land management: the case of highland smallholders in Ethiopia," Agricultural Economics: The Journal of the International Association of Agricultural Economists, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 22(3), April.
  10. Brent Swallow & Daniel Bromley, 1995. "Institutions, governance and incentives in common property regimes for African rangelands," Environmental & Resource Economics, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 6(2), pages 99-118, September.
  11. Pender, John L., 1999. "Rural population growth, agricultural change and natural resource management in developing countries: a review of hypotheses and some evidence from Honduras," EPTD discussion papers 48, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  12. Pender, John L. & Kerr, John M., 1998. "Determinants of farmers' indigenous soil and water conservation investments in semi-arid India," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 19(1-2), pages 113-125, September.
  13. Ger Klaassen & David Pearce, 1995. "Introduction," Environmental & Resource Economics, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 5(2), pages 85-93, March.
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Cited by:
  1. Sidibe, Amadou, 2005. "Farm-level adoption of soil and water conservation techniques in northern Burkina Faso," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 71(3), pages 211-224, February.
  2. Place, Frank, 2009. "Land Tenure and Agricultural Productivity in Africa: A Comparative Analysis of the Economics Literature and Recent Policy Strategies and Reforms," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 37(8), pages 1326-1336, August.

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