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Impact Of Agricultural Biotechnology In The European Union'S Sugar Industry

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  • Demont, Matty
  • Tollens, Eric

Abstract

We develop a welfare framework, which explicitly recognizes that research protected by intellectual property rights generates monopoly profits. The result is a simulation model, shaped to the European sugar sector, and enabling to assess the size and distribution of the benefits of transgenic sugar beet adoption in the European Union (EU) and the Rest of the World (ROW). Our model results suggest that the ROW captures the largest share of the benefits (53 % of total welfare increase). The EU sugar industry absorbs the next largest share of the benefits (30 %), with the smallest share (17 %) accruing to seed suppliers and gene developers. Since EU intervention prices are exogenously fixed each year, EU consumers do not take part in the distribution of the gains from the innovation. However, consumers outside the EU necessarily gain due to the depressing effect of the technology on world sugar prices. The latter is costly for the cane growers in the ROW, while beet producers gain. Our results reveal an apparent contradiction. When modern (bio)technologies are introduced in commodity markets subject to obsolete trade policies, the natural flow of domestic benefits from the input industry, via farmers, to consumers is hampered and biased towards the producing sector (input industry, farmers, and processors), leaving domestic consumers unaffected. Remarkably, given the current Common Market Organization for sugar, consumers outside the EU gain while EU citizens continue to subsidize EU sugar production trough high sugar prices, despite the innovation.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Centre for Agricultural and Food Economics in its series Working Papers with number 31854.

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Date of creation: 2002
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Handle: RePEc:ags:kucawp:31854

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Keywords: Industrial Organization; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies;

References

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  1. Devadoss, Stephen & Kropf, Jurgen, 1996. "Impacts of trade liberalizations under the Uruguay Round on the world sugar market," Agricultural Economics: The Journal of the International Association of Agricultural Economists, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 15(2), November.
  2. George C. Davis & Maria Cristina Espinoza, 1998. "A Unified Approach to Sensitivity Analysis in Equilibrium Displacement Models," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 80(4), pages 868-879.
  3. Devadoss, Stephen & Kropf, Jurgen, 1996. "Impacts of trade liberalizations under the Uruguay round on the world sugar market," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 15(2), pages 83-96, November.
  4. Moschini, GianCarlo & Lapan, Harvey E. & Sobolevsky, Andrei, 2000. "Roundup Ready Soybeans and Welfare Effects in the Soybean Complex," Staff General Research Papers 1799, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
  5. Giancarlo Moschini & Harvey Lapan, 1997. "Intellectual Property Rights and the Welfare Effects of Agricultural R&D," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 79(4), pages 1229-1242.
  6. Kennedy, P. Lynn & Harrison, R. Wes, 1999. "Competitiveness In The World Sugar Industry: A Comparison Of The Eu And U.S. Sugar Sectors," 1999 Annual meeting, August 8-11, Nashville, TN 21649, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
  7. José Benjamin Falck-Zepeda & Greg Traxler & Robert G. Nelson, 2000. "Surplus Distribution from the Introduction of a Biotechnology Innovation," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 82(2), pages 360-369.
  8. Demont, Matty & Wesseler, Justus & Tollens, Eric, 2002. "Biodiversity Versus Transgenic Sugar Beet: The One Euro Question," Working Papers 31859, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Centre for Agricultural and Food Economics.
  9. Demont, Matty & Tollens, Eric, 2001. "Welfare Effects Of Transgenic Sugarbeets In The European Union: A Theoretical Ex-Ante Framework," Working Papers 31852, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Centre for Agricultural and Food Economics.
  10. Poonyth, Daneswar & Westhoff, Patrick & Womack, Abner & Adams, Gary, 2000. "Impacts of WTO restrictions on subsidized EU sugar exports," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 22(3), pages 233-245, April.
  11. Colin Thirtle, 1999. "Productivity and the Returns to Levy-Funded R&D for Sugar Production in the Eastern Counties of England," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 50(3), pages 450-467.
  12. Vincent Réquillart & Éric Giraud-Héraud & Patricia Combette, 1997. "La politique sucrière européenne après les accords du Gatt," Économie et Prévision, Programme National Persée, vol. 127(1), pages 1-13.
  13. Jose B. Falck-Zepeda & Greg Traxler & Robert G. Nelson, 2000. "Rent creation and distribution from biotechnology innovations: The case of bt cotton and Herbicide-Tolerant soybeans in 1997," Agribusiness, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(1), pages 21-32.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Tollens, Eric, 2002. "Food Security In Kinshasa, Coping With Adversity," Working Papers 31848, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Centre for Agricultural and Food Economics.
  2. Falck-Zepeda, Jose & Horna, Daniela & Smale, Melinda, 2007. "The economic impact and the distribution of benefits and risk from the adoption of insect resistant (Bt) cotton in West Africa:," IFPRI discussion papers 718, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  3. Choeun, Hong & Godo, Yoshihisa & Hayami, Yujiro, 2006. "The economics and politics of rice export taxation in Thailand: A historical simulation analysis, 1950-1985," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(1), pages 103-125, February.
  4. Tollens, Eric, 2002. "The Challenges Of Poverty Reduction With Particular Reference To Rural Poverty And Agriculture In Sub-Saharan Africa," Working Papers 31850, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Centre for Agricultural and Food Economics.
  5. Fogarasi, Jozsef, 2007. "Efficiency and total factor productivity in post-EU accession Hungarian sugar beet production," Studies in Agricultural Economics, Research Institute for Agricultural Economics, issue 105, January.
  6. Tollens, Eric, 2003. "Poverty And Livelihood Entitlement, How It Relates To Agriculture," Working Papers 31856, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Centre for Agricultural and Food Economics.
  7. Tollens, Eric, 2002. "Market Information Systems In Liberalized African Export Commodity Markets: The Case Of Cocoa And Coffee In Cote D'Ivoire, Nigeria And Cameroon," Working Papers 31860, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Centre for Agricultural and Food Economics.
  8. Demont, Matty & Jouve, Philippe & Stessens, Johan & Tollens, Eric, 2000. "The Evolution Of Farming Systems In Northern Cote D'Ivoire: Boserup Versus Malthus And Competition Versus Complementarity," Working Papers 31846, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Centre for Agricultural and Food Economics.
  9. Tollens, Eric, 2003. "Current Situation Of Food Security In The D.R. Congo: Diagnostic And Perspectives," Working Papers 31853, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Centre for Agricultural and Food Economics.

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