The contribution of female non-farm income to poverty reduction
AbstractThere is a widely held view that off-farm income in developing countries tends to reduce poverty, leading to the conclusion that policies should focus on the further diversification of income options of rural households. However, much off-farm employment might be initiated rather as a survival strategy but as a sustainable way to reduce poverty in the long run. Using a rich data set from Tanzania, this study examines the potential income increases generated by off-farm income with a particular focus on off-farm income contributed by women. The findings indicate that women’s contributions to household income through off-farm activities are limited and smaller as compared to those of men. Investigating the possible reasons, fetching water and collecting firewood as well as the number of dependants limit women’s time that can be spent on off-farm activities.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by International Association of Agricultural Economists in its series 2009 Conference, August 16-22, 2009, Beijing, China with number 51762.
Date of creation: 2009
Date of revision:
Income diversification; off-farm employment; women; Agricultural and Food Policy; Consumer/Household Economics; Food Security and Poverty; International Development; Labor and Human Capital; D1; D6; J22; J4;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- D1 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior
- D6 - Microeconomics - - Welfare Economics
- J22 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Time Allocation and Labor Supply
- J4 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Particular Labor Markets
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Chris Elbers & Jan Willem Gunning & Bill Kinsey, 2003.
"Growth and Risk: Methodology and Micro Evidence,"
Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers
03-068/2, Tinbergen Institute, revised 19 Sep 2006.
- Vandenberg, Paul, 2006. "Poverty reduction through small enterprises : emerging consensus, unresolved issues and ILO activities," ILO Working Papers 388076, International Labour Organization.
- Van der Walle, Dominique & Cratty, Dorothyjean, 2003.
"Is the emerging nonfarm market economy the route out of poverty in Vietnam?,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
2950, The World Bank.
- Dominique van de Walle & Dorothyjean Cratty, 2004. "Is the emerging non-farm market economy the route out of poverty in Vietnam?," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 12(2), pages 237-274, 06.
- Patrizio Pagano & Fabiano Schivardi, 2001.
"Firm Size Distribution and Growth,"
Temi di discussione (Economic working papers)
394, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
- Janvry, Alain de & Sadoulet, Elisabeth, 2001. "Income Strategies Among Rural Households in Mexico: The Role of Off-farm Activities," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 29(3), pages 467-480, March.
- Jensen, Eric R, 1990. "An Econometric Analysis of the Old-Age Security Motive for Childbearing," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 31(4), pages 953-68, November.
- Lee, Lung-Fei & Trost, Robert P., 1978. "Estimation of some limited dependent variable models with application to housing demand," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 8(3), pages 357-382, December.
- Ferreira, Francisco H. G. & Lanjouw, Peter, 2001. "Rural Nonfarm Activities and Poverty in the Brazilian Northeast," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 29(3), pages 509-528, March.
- Lanjouw, Peter & Quizon, Jaime & Sparrow, Robert, 2001. "Non-agricultural earnings in peri-urban areas of Tanzania: evidence from household survey data," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 26(4), pages 385-403, August.
- Reardon, Thomas & Berdegue, Julio & Escobar, German, 2001. "Rural Nonfarm Employment and Incomes in Latin America: Overview and Policy Implications," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 29(3), pages 395-409, March.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (AgEcon Search).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.