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The contribution of female non-farm income to poverty reduction

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  • Seebens, Holger
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    Abstract

    There is a widely held view that off-farm income in developing countries tends to reduce poverty, leading to the conclusion that policies should focus on the further diversification of income options of rural households. However, much off-farm employment might be initiated rather as a survival strategy but as a sustainable way to reduce poverty in the long run. Using a rich data set from Tanzania, this study examines the potential income increases generated by off-farm income with a particular focus on off-farm income contributed by women. The findings indicate that women’s contributions to household income through off-farm activities are limited and smaller as compared to those of men. Investigating the possible reasons, fetching water and collecting firewood as well as the number of dependants limit women’s time that can be spent on off-farm activities.

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    File URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51762
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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by International Association of Agricultural Economists in its series 2009 Conference, August 16-22, 2009, Beijing, China with number 51762.

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    Date of creation: 2009
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    Handle: RePEc:ags:iaae09:51762

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    Web page: http://www.iaae-agecon.org/
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    Related research

    Keywords: Income diversification; off-farm employment; women; Agricultural and Food Policy; Consumer/Household Economics; Food Security and Poverty; International Development; Labor and Human Capital; D1; D6; J22; J4;

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    1. Janvry, Alain de & Sadoulet, Elisabeth, 2001. "Income Strategies Among Rural Households in Mexico: The Role of Off-farm Activities," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 29(3), pages 467-480, March.
    2. Vandenberg, Paul, 2006. "Poverty reduction through small enterprises : emerging consensus, unresolved issues and ILO activities," ILO Working Papers 388076, International Labour Organization.
    3. Van der Walle, Dominique & Cratty, Dorothyjean, 2003. "Is the emerging nonfarm market economy the route out of poverty in Vietnam?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2950, The World Bank.
    4. Patrizio Pagano & Fabiano Schivardi, 2001. "Firm Size Distribution and Growth," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 394, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    5. Chris Elbers & Jan Willem Gunning & Bill Kinsey, 2007. "Growth and Risk: Methodology and Micro Evidence," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 21(1), pages 1-20.
    6. Ferreira, Francisco H. G. & Lanjouw, Peter, 2001. "Rural Nonfarm Activities and Poverty in the Brazilian Northeast," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 29(3), pages 509-528, March.
    7. Jensen, Eric R, 1990. "An Econometric Analysis of the Old-Age Security Motive for Childbearing," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 31(4), pages 953-68, November.
    8. Reardon, Thomas & Berdegue, Julio & Escobar, German, 2001. "Rural Nonfarm Employment and Incomes in Latin America: Overview and Policy Implications," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 29(3), pages 395-409, March.
    9. Lee, Lung-Fei & Trost, Robert P., 1978. "Estimation of some limited dependent variable models with application to housing demand," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 8(3), pages 357-382, December.
    10. Lanjouw, Peter & Quizon, Jaime & Sparrow, Robert, 2001. "Non-agricultural earnings in peri-urban areas of Tanzania: evidence from household survey data," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 26(4), pages 385-403, August.
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