Outsourcing, Regional Trade and Specialization: An Application to in the German Pig Sector
AbstractThe global trend of industrializing agriculture increasingly transforms farms and firms into specialized component suppliers within a multi-stage food processing chain, which creates intraindustry trade between- and within geographical regions. This can be analyzed within the framework of a hypothetical multiregional food-processing firm that benefits from outsourcing various ‘tasks’ to other sub-contracting regions, in order to utilize lower production cost there. This is modeled as a multi-output cost minimization problem of the processing firm, and it is argued that with respect to agriculture, the outsourcing opportunities for the firm are determined by economies of diversification. Trade is implicitly reflected as the movement of intermediate factors towards the processing firm, and firm-level specialization of the sub-contractors is an observable outcome. This framework is applied to pig production in 1150 municipalities in southern Germany. The estimated multi-output production frontier is decomposed according to a primal measure of diversification economies. Results show that pig farms located closer to slaughterhouses tend to specialize more in one of the tasks ‘piglet production’, ‘rearing’ or ‘fattening’, while farms in regions distant from slaughterhouses tend to in-source all of these tasks. Future research may extend the framework towards comparative static analyses of relevant policies.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by European Association of Agricultural Economists in its series 2011 International Congress, August 30-September 2, 2011, Zurich, Switzerland with number 114537.
Date of creation: 2011
Date of revision:
Outsourcing; Trade of Tasks; Economies of Diversification; Pig Production; International Relations/Trade; Livestock Production/Industries;
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Marie-Luise Rau & Frank van Tongeren, 2009. "Heterogeneous firms and homogenising standards in agri-food trade: the Polish meat case," European Review of Agricultural Economics, Foundation for the European Review of Agricultural Economics, vol. 36(4), pages 479-505, December.
- Elhanan Helpman, 2006.
"Trade, FDI, and the Organization of Firms,"
Journal of Economic Literature,
American Economic Association, vol. 44(3), pages 589-630, September.
- Elhanan Helpman, 2006. "Trade, FDI, and the Organization of Firms," NBER Working Papers 12091, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Helpman, Elhanan, 2006. "Trade, FDI and the Organization of Firms," CEPR Discussion Papers 5589, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Elhanan Helpman, 2006. "Trade, FDI, and the Organization of Firms," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 2118, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
- Kilkenny, Maureen, 2002.
"The New Rural Economy: Discussion,"
Staff General Research Papers
10185, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
- Marc J. Melitz, 2003.
"The Impact of Trade on Intra-Industry Reallocations and Aggregate Industry Productivity,"
Econometric Society, vol. 71(6), pages 1695-1725, November.
- Mark J. Melitz, 2002. "The Impact of Trade on Intra-Industry Reallocations and Aggregate Industry Productivity," NBER Working Papers 8881, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Melitz, Marc J, 2002. "The Impact of Trade on Intra-Industry Reallocations and Aggregate Industry Productivity," CEPR Discussion Papers 3381, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Reardon, Thomas & Barrett, Christopher B., 2000. "Agroindustrialization, globalization, and international development: An overview of issues, patterns, and determinants," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 23(3), pages 195-205, September.
- Baldwin, Richard & Robert-Nicoud, Frédéric, 2010.
"Trade-in-goods and trade-in-tasks: An Integrating Framework,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
7775, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Richard Baldwin & Frédéric Robert-Nicoud, 2011. "Trade-in-goods and trade- in-tasks: An Integrating Framework," Research Papers by the Department of Economics, University of Geneva 11112, Département des Sciences Économiques, Université de Genève.
- Richard Baldwin & Frédéric Robert-Nicoud, 2010. "Trade-in-goods and trade-in-tasks: An Integrating Framework," NBER Working Papers 15882, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Gene M. Grossman & Esteban Rossi-Hansberg, 2008.
"Trading Tasks: A Simple Theory of Offshoring,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 98(5), pages 1978-97, December.
- Chavas, Jean-Paul & Kim, Kwansoo, 2010. "Economies of diversification: A generalization and decomposition of economies of scope," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 126(2), pages 229-235, August.
- Philipp Harms & Oliver Lorz & Dieter Urban, 2012.
"Offshoring along the production chain,"
Canadian Journal of Economics,
Canadian Economics Association, vol. 45(1), pages 93-106, February.
- Philipp Harms & Oliver Lorz & Dieter Urban, 2009. "Offshoring Along the Production Chain," Working Papers 09.01, Swiss National Bank, Study Center Gerzensee.
- Philipp Harms & Oliver Lorz & Dieter M. Urban, 2009. "Offshoring along the Production Chain," CESifo Working Paper Series 2564, CESifo Group Munich.
- Evan Rawley & Timothy S. Simcoe, 2010. "Diversification, Diseconomies of Scope, and Vertical Contracting: Evidence from the Taxicab Industry," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 56(9), pages 1534-1550, September.
- Nikolaev, Denis, 2007. "The reasons of creation and development of holding agro industrial structures in system of vertical integration sugar business in Russia," 102nd Seminar, May 17-18, 2007, Moscow, Russia 10015, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
- Greenaway, David & Gullstrand, Joakim & Kneller, Richard, 2008. "Surviving globalisation," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 74(2), pages 264-277, March.
- Rosario Crin�, 2009. "Offshoring, Multinationals And Labour Market: A Review Of The Empirical Literature," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 23(2), pages 197-249, 04.
- Jean-Paul Chavas, 2008. "On the economics of agricultural production ," Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society, vol. 52(4), pages 365-380, December.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (AgEcon Search).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.