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Adoption and Impacts of Zero-Tillage in the Rice-Wheat Zone of Irrigated Haryana, India

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Author Info

  • Erenstein, Olaf
  • Malik, R.K.
  • Singh, Sher

Abstract

This study documents the adoption and impacts of zero-tillage (ZT) wheat in the rice-wheat systems of India’s Haryana State primarily drawing on a detailed empirical survey of 400 rice-wheat farmers. Our random stratified sample revealed 34.5% to be ZT wheat adopters and a quarter of the wheat area in the surveyed communities to be under ZT. The study suggests the potential for further diffusion but also flags the issue of disadoption (10%). ZT adopters, non-adopters, and disadopters differ significantly in terms of their resource bases, with adopters typically showing the most favorable values. ZT drastically reduces tractor operations in farmers’ ZT wheat fields from an average of 8 passes to a single pass, implying a saving of 6 tractor hours and 36 liters of diesel per hectare. At 4.4 tons per hectare, ZT achieved the highest wheat yields in the survey year, a significant 4.0% yield increase over conventional tillage. The higher yield and lower water use resulted in significantly higher water productivity indicators for ZT wheat. ZT did not have any significant spillover effect on the subsequent rice crop. The combination of a significant “yield effect” and “cost-saving effect” makes ZT adoption worthwhile and is the driving force behind its rapid spread and widespread acceptance, providing a much needed boost to economic returns to wheat cultivation. Based on these findings, the study provides a number of recommendations for research and development in Haryana’s rice-wheat systems.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by CIMMYT: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center in its series Impact Studies with number 56092.

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Date of creation: Dec 2007
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Handle: RePEc:ags:cimmis:56092

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Related research

Keywords: Wheat; Rice; Agricultural development; Innovation adoption; Drilling equipment; Farming systems; Zero tillage; Production costs; Credit; Income; India; Crop Production/Industries; E16; F08;

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References

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  1. Feder, Gershon & Just, Richard E & Zilberman, David, 1985. "Adoption of Agricultural Innovations in Developing Countries: A Survey," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 33(2), pages 255-98, January.
  2. Molden, D. J. & Sakthivadivel, R. & Perry, C. J. & de Fraiture, C. & Kloezen, W. H., 1998. "Indicators for comparing performance of irrigated agricultural systems," IWMI Research Reports H022308, International Water Management Institute.
  3. The World Bank,, 2005. "India: Re-Energizing the Agricultural Sector to Sustain Growth and Reduce Poverty," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780195674323.
  4. Molden, D., 1997. "Accounting for water use and productivity," IWMI Books, Reports H021374, International Water Management Institute.
  5. Cabangon, R. J. & Tuong, T. P. & Abdullah, N. B., 2002. "Comparing water input and water productivity of transplanted and direct-seeded rice production systems," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 57(1), pages 11-31, September.
  6. Molden, D. J. & Sakthivadivel, R. & Perry, C. J. & de Fraiture, C. & Kloezen, W. H., 1998. "Indicators for comparing performance of irrigated agricultural systems," IWMI Books, Reports H022308, International Water Management Institute.
  7. Seckler, D., 1996. "The new era of water resources management: from "dry" to "wet" water savings," IWMI Books, Reports H018206, International Water Management Institute.
  8. Abrol, I. P., 1999. "Sustaining rice-wheat system productivity in the Indo-Gangetic plains: water management-related issues," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 40(1), pages 31-35, March.
  9. Qureshi, A. S. & Shah, T. & Akhtar, M, 2003. "The groundwater economy of Pakistan," IWMI Working Papers H033572, International Water Management Institute.
  10. Farooq, Umar & Sharif, Muhammad & Erenstein, Olaf, 2007. "Adoption and Impacts of Zero-Tillage in the Rice-Wheat Zone of Irrigated Punjab, Pakistan," Impact Studies 56095, CIMMYT: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center.
  11. Praduman kumar & Anjani kumar & Surabhi Mittal, 2004. "Total Factor Productivity of Crop Sector in the Indo-Gangetic Plain of India: Sustainability issues revisited," Indian Economic Review, Department of Economics, Delhi School of Economics, vol. 39(1), pages 169-201, January.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Krishna, Vijesh V. & Mehrotra, Meera Bhatia & Teufel, Nils & Bishnoi, Dalip Kumar, 2012. "Characterizing the Cereal Systems and Identifying the Potential of Conservation Agriculture in South Asia," Socioeconomics Program Working Papers 147109, CIMMYT: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center.
  2. Erenstein, Olaf, 2009. "Zero tillage in the rice-wheat systems of the Indo-Gangetic Plains: A review of impacts and sustainability implications," IFPRI discussion papers 916, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  3. Krishna, Vijesh V. & Aravindakshan, Sreejith & Chowdhury, Apurba & Rudra, Bankim, 2012. "Farmer Access and Differential Impacts of Zero Tillage Technology in the Subsistence Wheat Farming Systems of West Bengal, India," Socioeconomics Program Working Papers 147204, CIMMYT: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center.
  4. Tripathi, R.S. & Raju, R. & Thimmappa, K., 2013. "Impact of Zero Tillage on Economics of Wheat Production in Haryana," Agricultural Economics Research Review, Agricultural Economics Research Association (India), vol. 26(1).
  5. Fermont, Anneke & Benson, Todd, 2011. "Estimating yield of food crops grown by smallholder farmers: A review in the Uganda context," IFPRI discussion papers 1097, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  6. Erenstein, Olaf, 2009. "Resource scarcity gradients in the post-Green Revolution Indo-Gangetic Plains: Implications for agricultural technology use and supply," 2009 Conference, August 16-22, 2009, Beijing, China 51569, International Association of Agricultural Economists.

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