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Moral Hazard and Risk Management in Agri-Environmental Policy

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  • Fraser, Rob W.

Abstract

This paper develops the key finding of Hogan, Ozanne and Colman (2000) that risk aversion among farmers ameliorates the moral hazard problem in relation to agri-environmental policy compliance. It is shown that risk averse farmers who face uncertainty in their production income are more likely to comply with such a policy as a means of risk management. In addition, it is shown that a principal who has control over both the level of monitoring and the size of penalty if detected can reduce non-compliance by adjustments to these instruments which increase the variance of farmers’ income but leave the expected penalty unchanged. It is concluded that risk management by both principals and agents has the potential to diminish the moral hazard problem, especially given proposed developments in agri-environmental policy in the European Union.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society in its series 2002 Conference (46th), February 13-15, 2002, Canberra with number 125086.

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Date of creation: Feb 2002
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Handle: RePEc:ags:aare02:125086

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Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy;

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References

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  1. Peter Bardsley & M. Harris, 1987. "An Approach To The Econometric Estimation Of Attitudes To Risk In Agriculture," Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society, vol. 31(2), pages 112-126, 08.
  2. Chongwoo Choe & Iain Fraser, 1997. "Compliance Monitoring and Agri-Environmental Policy," Working Papers 1997.08, School of Economics, La Trobe University.
  3. Andrew Moxey & Ben White & Adam Ozanne, 1999. "Efficient Contract Design for Agri-Environment Policy," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 50(2), pages 187-202.
  4. Bourgeon, Jean-Marc & Jayet, Pierre-Alain & Picard, Pierre, 1995. "An incentive approach to land set-aside programs," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 39(8), pages 1487-1509, October.
  5. C. Choe & I. Fraser, 1998. "A Note on Imperfect Monitoring of Agri-Environmental Policy," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 49(2), pages 250-258.
  6. Rob Fraser, 2001. "Using Principal-Agent Theory to Deal with Output Slippage in the European Union Set-Aside Policy," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 52(2), pages 29-41.
  7. Rob Fraser & Hild Rygnestad, 1999. "An Assessment of the Impact of Implementing the European Commission's "Agenda 2000" Cereal Proposals for Specialist Wheatgrowers in Denmark," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 50(2), pages 328-335.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Barreiro-Hurle, Jesus & Espinosa-Goded, Maria & Dupraz, Pierre, 2008. "Does Intensity Of Change Matter? Factors Affecting Adoption In Two Agri-Environmental Schemes," 107th Seminar, January 30-February 1, 2008, Sevilla, Spain 6458, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
  2. Lankoski, Jussi E. & Lichtenberg, Erik & Ollikainen, Markku, 2008. "Agri-environmental program compliance under heterogeneous conditions," 2008 International Congress, August 26-29, 2008, Ghent, Belgium 44381, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
  3. Yano, Yuki & Blandford, David, 2008. "Use of Penalties and Rewards in Agri-Environmental Policy," 82nd Annual Conference, March 31 - April 2, 2008, Royal Agricultural College, Cirencester, UK 36873, Agricultural Economics Society.
  4. Yano, Yuki & Blandford, David, 2008. "Agri-Environmental Policy and Moral Hazard under Output Price and Production Uncertainty," 2008 International Congress, August 26-29, 2008, Ghent, Belgium 44323, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
  5. Lankoski, Jussi E. & Lichtenberg, Erik & Ollikainen, Markku, 2008. "Agri-Environmental Program Compliance in a Heterogeneous Landscape," Working Papers 37797, University of Maryland, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics.
  6. Meijerink, Gerdien W., 2007. "If services aren't delivered, people won't pay: the role of measurement problems and monitoring in Payments for Environmental Services," 106th Seminar, October 25-27, 2007, Montpellier, France 7948, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
  7. Rob Fraser, 2004. "On the Use of Targeting to Reduce Moral Hazard in Agri-environmental Schemes," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 55(3), pages 525-540.
  8. Liang, Jing & Jensen, Helen H., 2008. "Marketing Agreement, Food Safety and Contract Design," 2008 Annual Meeting, July 27-29, 2008, Orlando, Florida 6434, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
  9. Gorddard, Russell J. & Whitten, Stuart M. & Reeson, Andrew, 2008. "When should biodiversity tenders contract on outcomes?," 2008 Conference (52nd), February 5-8, 2008, Canberra, Australia 5979, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society.
  10. Fraser, Rob W., 2012. "Price Insurance, Moral Hazard and Agri-environmental Policy," 2012 Conference (56th), February 7-10, 2012, Freemantle, Australia 124305, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society.
  11. Ozanne, Adam & White, Benedict, 2003. "Agri-environment Policy Design With Hidden Information and Hidden Action: Input Quotas vs Input Charges," 2003 Conference (47th), February 12-14, 2003, Fremantle, Australia 58196, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society.
  12. Schilizzi, Steven & Breustedt, Gunnar & Latacz-Lohmann, Uwe, 2011. "Does tendering conservation contracts with performance payments generate additional benefits?," Working Papers 100883, University of Western Australia, School of Agricultural and Resource Economics.
  13. Bertoni, Danilo & Olper, Alessandro, 2012. "The Political Economy Of Agri-Environmental Measures: An Empirical Assessment At The Eu Regional Level," APSTRACT: Applied Studies in Agribusiness and Commerce, AGRIMBA, vol. 6.
  14. Armsworth, Paul R & Banerjee, Simanti & Hanley, Nicholas & Lennox, Gareth D, 2012. "How should we incentivize private landowners to "produce" more biodive rsity?," Stirling Economics Discussion Papers 2012-02, University of Stirling, Division of Economics.
  15. Ozanne, Adam & White, Benedict, 2008. "Hidden action, risk aversion and variable fines in agri-environmental schemes," Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society, vol. 52(2), June.
  16. Fraser, Rob W., 2011. "Moral Hazard, Targeting and Contract Duration in Agri-Environmental Policy," 2011 Conference (55th), February 8-11, 2011, Melbourne, Australia 100550, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society.
  17. Ferraro, Paul J., 2008. "Asymmetric information and contract design for payments for environmental services," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 65(4), pages 810-821, May.
  18. Sauer, Johannes & Walsh, John, 2011. "ESS versus NVZ – The Cost-Effectiveness of Command-and-Control versus Agreement Based Policy Instruments," 85th Annual Conference, April 18-20, 2011, Warwick University, Coventry, UK 108963, Agricultural Economics Society.
  19. Latacz-Lohmann, Uwe & Schilizzi, Steven & Breustedt, Gunnar, 2011. "Auctioning Outcome-Based Conservation Contracts," 51st Annual Conference, Halle, Germany, September 28-30, 2011 114523, German Association of Agricultural Economists (GEWISOLA).
  20. Kentaro Kawasaki & Takeshi Fujie & Kentaro Koito & Norikazu Inoue & Hiroki Sasaki, 2012. "Conservation Auctions and Compliance: Theory and Evidence from Laboratory Experiments," Environmental & Resource Economics, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 52(2), pages 157-179, June.

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