Limited Food Access as an Equilibrium Outcome: An Empirical Analysis
AbstractLack of access to nutritious and affordable food has become an important public policy issue in the U.S.: various interest groups are seeking to reverse a trend whereby certain areas lack larger, full-service grocery stores that provide “higher” quality foods. Based on game-theoretic findings suggesting that lack of food access can be an equilibrium outcome, we specify a model relating access to higher quality food stores to a vector of supply and demand factors, using seven years of county-level data for the contiguous U.S., and a constrained generalized ordered logit estimator. Our results suggest that demand side factors, especially market size (total income and SNAP funds) play an important role in determining food access, and that large food stores avoid areas with higher poverty. Some cost determinants, such as the ratio of building costs to the total site cost, home price index (for counties with higher poverty rates than the average) and ease of recruiting labor, affect the probability of observing areas with no access. A more favorable business tax regime has no impact on access, while better transportation infrastructure reduces rather than improves food access. Our results shed new light on the determinants of food access in addition to highlighting what policy can and cannot accomplish to improve food access.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Agricultural and Applied Economics Association in its series 2012 AAEA/EAAE Food Environment Symposium, May 30-31, Boston, MA with number 123196.
Date of creation: 2012
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Food Access; Equilibrium; Food-Store Density; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Q18; R3; L81;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- Q18 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - Agricultural Policy; Food Policy
- R3 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Real Estate Markets, Spatial Production Analysis, and Firm Location
- L81 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Services - - - Retail and Wholesale Trade; e-Commerce
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2012-05-15 (All new papers)
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