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The Impact of Interstate Bank Branching Deregulations on the U.S. Agricultural Sector: From Better Access to Credit to Higher Farm Sales and Profits

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  • Kandilov, Amy
  • Kandilov, Ivan
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    Abstract

    In this paper, we show that relaxing credit constraints and increasing access to finance by lifting state-level restrictions on interstate bank expansions from the 1970s through the early 1990s benefited the U.S. agricultural industry by increasing farm sales and profits. In our empirical analysis, we use historical county-level data from 1970 until 1994 for the entire U.S. and a difference-in-differences econometric framework that exploits only within state variation in bank deregulation to distinguish the effect of an increase in bank competition and reduction in credit constraints from potential confounding factors. Further, by including region-by-year fixed effects in our econometric equation, we estimate the impact of banking deregulations by comparing changes (in farm sales and expenditures) in states that lift restrictions on interstate banking to changes in states that do not lift such restrictions in the same (Census) region of the country. Finally, we also show that the empirical results are robust to comparing only counties along state borders, which have very similar climate, soil fertility, and access to transportation. Our estimates indicate that county-level farm sales increase by about 3.9 percent after the state deregulates its banking sector and allows interstate bank expansion. The results also show that county-level agricultural production expenditures in the state rise by 1.9 percent, which is less than the increase in sales, thus leading to higher farm profits. The positive impact on farm sales and expenditures is larger in metropolitan counties than in rural counties. Overall, our work demonstrates that government policies aimed at improving farmers’ access to credit can lead to higher farm sales, both in urban and rural locations.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Agricultural and Applied Economics Association in its series 2013 Annual Meeting, August 4-6, 2013, Washington, D.C. with number 149820.

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    Date of creation: 30 May 2013
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    Handle: RePEc:ags:aaea13:149820

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    Keywords: Sales; Farm Expenditure; Banking Deregulation; Credit Constraints; Agribusiness; Agricultural Finance; Crop Production/Industries; Financial Economics; Livestock Production/Industries; Public Economics; G18; G21; Q13; Q14;

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    1. Charles A. Towe & Mitchell J. Morehart, 2009. "Credit Constraints: Their Existence, Determinants, and Implications for U.S. Farm and Nonfarm Sole Proprietorships," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 91(1), pages 275-289.
    2. Stéphane Blancard & Jean-Philippe Boussemart & Walter Briec & Kristiaan Kerstens, 2006. "Short- and Long-Run Credit Constraints in French Agriculture: A Directional Distance Function Framework Using Expenditure-Constrained Profit Functions," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 88(2), pages 351-364.
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    10. Butler, Alexander W. & Cornaggia, Jess, 2011. "Does access to external finance improve productivity? Evidence from a natural experiment," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 99(1), pages 184-203, January.
    11. R. Glenn Hubbard & Anil Kashyap, 1990. "Internal Net Worth and the Investment Process: An Application to U.S. Agriculture," NBER Working Papers 3339, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    12. Jayaratne, Jith & Strahan, Philip E, 1996. "The Finance-Growth Nexus: Evidence from Bank Branch Deregulation," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 111(3), pages 639-70, August.
    13. Andreu, Monica Lopez & Featherstone, Allen M. & Langemeier, Michael R. & Grunewald, Orlen C., 2006. "Impact of Financial Variables on Production in Kansas Farms Efficiencies," 2006 Annual meeting, July 23-26, Long Beach, CA 21406, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
    14. Foltz, Jeremy D., 2004. "Credit market access and profitability in Tunisian agriculture," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 30(3), pages 229-240, May.
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