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Do Women Earn Less In Rural Areas? An Empirical Analysis Of The Female Rural-Urban Wage Differential

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  • Wang, Qiuyan
  • Findeis, Jill L.
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    Abstract

    This study evaluates the possible reasons for the persistent rural-urban wage gap among women in the U.S. The paper uses two-step panel data estimations that can consider explanations including rural-urban differences in observed individual characteristics and work-related characteristics and at the same time control for both unobserved differences in amenities and productivities and for the potential effects of endogeneity and/or sample selection bias in hours worked. The paper finds that significant rural-urban female wage differential exist for many groups, indicating the functioning of rural and urban labor markets are different.

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    File URL: http://purl.umn.edu/19982
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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association) in its series 2004 Annual meeting, August 1-4, Denver, CO with number 19982.

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    Date of creation: 2004
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    Handle: RePEc:ags:aaea04:19982

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    Keywords: Labor and Human Capital;

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    1. Glaeser, Edward L & Mare, David C, 2001. "Cities and Skills," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 19(2), pages 316-42, April.
    2. Francis Vella & Marno Verbeek, 1998. "Whose wages do unions raise? A dynamic model of unionism and wage rate determination for young men," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 13(2), pages 163-183.
    3. Whitney Newey & James Powell & Francis Vella, 1998. "Nonparametric Estimation of Triangular Simultaneous Equations Models," Working papers 98-16, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
    4. Davis, Elizabeth E. & Connolly, Laura S. & Weber, Bruce A., 1999. "Employment Outcomes For Low-Income Adults In Rural And Urban Labor Markets," 1999 Annual meeting, August 8-11, Nashville, TN 21624, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
    5. Vella, Francis & Verbeek, Marno, 1999. "Two-step estimation of panel data models with censored endogenous variables and selection bias," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 90(2), pages 239-263, June.
    6. Esperanza Vera-Toscano & Euan Phimister & Alfons Weersink, 2004. "Panel Estimates of the Canadian Rural/Urban Women's Wage Gap," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 86(4), pages 1138-1151.
    7. Ron Shaffer, 1998. "Rural Poverty: A Response," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 80(5), pages 1015-1016.
    8. Nijman, T.E. & Verbeek, M.J.C.M., 1992. "Non-response in panel data: The impact on estimates of a life cycle consumption function," Open Access publications from Tilburg University urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-153282, Tilburg University.
    9. Lars Osberg & Daniel V. Gordon & Zhengxi Lin, 1994. "Interregional Migration and Interindustry Labour Mobility in Canada: A Simultaneous Approach," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 27(1), pages 58-80, February.
    10. Nakamura, Alice & Nakamura, Masao, 1985. "Dynamic models of the labor force behavior of married women which can be estimated using limited amounts of past information," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 273-298, March.
    11. Jill L. Findeis & Leif Jensen, 1998. "Employment Opportunities in Rural Areas: Implications for Poverty in a Changing Policy Environment," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 80(5), pages 1000-1007.
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