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Rural Credit Rationing And National Development Banks In Developing Countries

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  • Casillas, Gabriel
  • Mitchell, Paul D.

Abstract

A common problem in agricultural credit markets in developing countries is the coexistence of a competitive market equilibrium interest rate and credit rationing. The literature typically explains the existence of credit rationing in competitive credit markets using adverse selection and moral hazard. Unfortunately these analyses are not consistent with the empirical reality that developing countries deal with in terms of subsidized credit, especially in the agricultural sector. This paper presents an alternative explanation for credit rationing in the agricultural sector in developing countries based on the fact that the requested loans are usually for small amounts, with many farmers making applications. As a result, the costs of operation increase with the number of loans given, so that inefficiencies in credit allocation occur when national development banks are present. It is shown that credit rationing can be reduced if shutting-down the national development bank is a feasible policy. Two other cases show that a national development bank is welfare-improving if an incentive compatible contract is used.

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Paper provided by American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association) in its series 2003 Annual meeting, July 27-30, Montreal, Canada with number 22199.

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Date of creation: 2003
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Handle: RePEc:ags:aaea03:22199

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Keywords: Financial Economics;

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  1. Hans P. Binswanger & Klaus Deininger, 1997. "Explaining Agricultural and Agrarian Policies in Developing Countries," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 35(4), pages 1958-2005, December.
  2. Kydland, Finn E & Prescott, Edward C, 1977. "Rules Rather Than Discretion: The Inconsistency of Optimal Plans," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 85(3), pages 473-91, June.
  3. Svensson, Lars E. O., 1997. "Inflation forecast targeting: Implementing and monitoring inflation targets," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 41(6), pages 1111-1146, June.
  4. Barro, Robert J. & Gordon, David B., 1983. "Rules, discretion and reputation in a model of monetary policy," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 101-121.
  5. Stiglitz, Joseph E & Weiss, Andrew, 1981. "Credit Rationing in Markets with Imperfect Information," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 71(3), pages 393-410, June.
  6. Samuelson, Paul A, 1975. "Optimum Social Security in a Life-Cycle Growth Model," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 16(3), pages 539-44, October.
  7. Blackman, Allen, 2001. "Why Don't Lenders Finance High-Return Technological Change in Developing-Country Agriculture?," Discussion Papers dp-01-17, Resources For the Future.
  8. Hoff, Karla & Stiglitz, Joseph E., 1997. "Moneylenders and bankers: price-increasing subsidies in a monopolistically competitive market," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 52(2), pages 429-462, April.
  9. Bester, Helmut, 1985. "Screening vs. Rationing in Credit Markets with Imperfect Information," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 75(4), pages 850-55, September.
  10. Braverman, Avishay & Guasch, J. Luis, 1989. "Rural credit in developing countries," Policy Research Working Paper Series 219, The World Bank.
  11. Brock, Philip L. & Rojas Suarez, Liliana, 2000. "Understanding the behavior of bank spreads in Latin America," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(1), pages 113-134, October.
  12. de Meza, David & Webb, David, 2000. "Does credit rationing imply insufficient lending?," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 78(3), pages 215-234, November.
  13. Canning, David J, 1988. "Increasing Returns in Industry and the Role of Agriculture in Growth," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 40(3), pages 463-76, September.
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