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Japanese and U.S. Exports and Investment as Conduits of Growth

In: Financial Deregulation and Integration in East Asia, NBER-EASE Volume 5

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  • Jonathan Eaton
  • Akiko Tamura

Abstract

We develop a simple model of the choice between exploiting a technology in another country via export and via direct foreign investment. The model points to the destination country's size, level of technological sophistication, and distance from the source as factors in the decision. Moreover, it suggests that the effects of these variables may not only be nonhomogeneous but nonmonotonic as well. We use the model as a basis for estimating Japanese and U.S. exports and DFI positions around the world. Consistent with the theory we find that the importance of DFI relative to exports grows with population, although, contrary to our theory, the elasticity of DFI, as well as exports, with respect to population is less than one. We find that distance tends to inhibit DFI much less than it inhibits exports, as our theory predicts. We find some tendency for Japanese exports to rise relative to DFI as countries become more advanced with U.S. exports and DFI exhibiting the opposite tendency. Taking population, per capita income, factor endowments, and distance into account, we Japan to be more open to U.S. exports than any region in the world except East Asia.

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This chapter was published in:

  • Takatoshi Ito & Anne O. Krueger, 1996. "Financial Deregulation and Integration in East Asia, NBER-EASE Volume 5," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number ito_96-1, July.
    This item is provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Chapters with number 8558.

    Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberch:8558

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    1. S. Lael Brainard, 1993. "An Empirical Assessment of the Factor Proportions Explanation of Multi-National Sales," NBER Working Papers 4583, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Jonathan Eaton & Samuel Kortum, 1994. "International patenting and technology diffusion," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 94-35, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    3. Deardorff, Alan V., 1984. "Testing trade theories and predicting trade flows," Handbook of International Economics, in: R. W. Jones & P. B. Kenen (ed.), Handbook of International Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 10, pages 467-517 Elsevier.
    4. Douglas D. Purvis, 1971. "Technology, Trade and Factor Mobility," Working Papers 54, Queen's University, Department of Economics.
    5. Drysdale, Peter & Garnaut, Ross, 1982. "Trade Intensities and the Analysis of Bilateral Trade Flows in a Many-Country World : A Survey," Hitotsubashi Journal of Economics, Hitotsubashi University, vol. 22(2), pages 62-84, February.
    6. S. Lael Brainard, 1993. "An Empirical Assessment of the Proximity-Concentration Tradeoff between Multinational Sales and Trade," NBER Working Papers 4580, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    7. Dixit, Avinash K & Stiglitz, Joseph E, 1975. "Monopolistic Competition and Optimum Product Diversity," The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS) 64, University of Warwick, Department of Economics.
    8. Markusen, James R., 1984. "Multinationals, multi-plant economies, and the gains from trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(3-4), pages 205-226, May.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:
    1. Elvira Sapienza, 2009. "The interaction between Export and FDI: Central-Eastern Europe and EU15," Quaderni DSEMS 13-2009, Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche, Matematiche e Statistiche, Universita' di Foggia.
    2. Shang-Jin Wei, 1997. "Why is Corruption So Much More Taxing Than Tax? Arbitrariness Kills," NBER Working Papers 6255, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. Shang-Jin Wei, 1997. "How Taxing is Corruption on International Investors?," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 63, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
    4. Lee Branstetter, 2000. "Is Foreign Direct Investment a Channel of Knowledge Spillovers? Evidence from Japan's FDI in the United States," NBER Working Papers 8015, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    5. Herrmann, Roland & Möser, Anke & Weber, Sascha A., 2009. "Grocery retailing in Poland: Structural changes and foreign direct investment," Discussion Papers 40, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Center for international Development and Environmental Research (ZEU).
    6. Assaf Razin & Efraim Sadka, 2006. "Vying for Foreign Direct Investment: A EU-type Model of Tax Competition," NBER Working Papers 11991, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    7. Yin-Wong Cheung & XingWang Qian, 2009. "The Empirics of China's Outward Direct Investment," Working Papers 172009, Hong Kong Institute for Monetary Research.
    8. Akiomi Yutaka Horiba & Kazuo Yoshida, 2003. "Determinants Of The Initial Decisions By Japanese Firmsto Undertake Foreign Direct Investment," Discussion Papers in Economics and Business 03-09, Osaka University, Graduate School of Economics and Osaka School of International Public Policy (OSIPP).
    9. Mutti, John & Grubert, Harry, 2004. "Empirical asymmetries in foreign direct investment and taxation," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 62(2), pages 337-358, March.
    10. Agnès Bénassy-Quéré & Lionel Fontagné & Amina Lahrèche-Révil, 2005. "How Does FDI React to Corporate Taxation?," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer, vol. 12(5), pages 583-603, September.
    11. Octavio Escobar, 2011. "The location pattern of FDI in Mexico after NAFTA," ERSA conference papers ersa10p804, European Regional Science Association.
    12. Linda S. Goldberg & Michael W. Klein, 1997. "Foreign Direct Investment, Trade and Real Exchange Rate Linkages in Developing Countries," NBER Working Papers 6344, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    13. Adugna Lemi, 2004. "Foreign Direct Investment, Host Country Productivity And Export: The Case Of U.S. And Japanese Multinational Affiliates," Journal of Economic Development, Chung-Ang Unviersity, Department of Economics, vol. 29(1), pages 163-187, June.
    14. Paul Brenton & Francesca Di Mauro & Matthias Lücke, 1999. "Economic Integration and FDI: An Empirical Analysis of Foreign Investment in the EU and in Central and Eastern Europe," Empirica, Springer, vol. 26(2), pages 95-121, June.
    15. Di Mauro, Francesca, 2000. "Economic Integration Between The Eu And The Ceecs: A Sectoral Study," ERSA conference papers ersa00p358, European Regional Science Association.
    16. Roberta De Santis & Maria Cristina Mercuri & Claudio Vicarelli, 2001. "Taxes and Location of Foreign Direct Investments: an Empirical Analysys for the European Union Countries," ISAE Working Papers 24, ISTAT - Italian National Institute of Statistics - (Rome, ITALY).
    17. Valeriano Martínez-San Román & Marta Bengoa-Calvo & Blanca Sánchez-Robles Rute, 2013. "The Trade-FDI Nexus: Evidence from the European Union," Working Papers 2013/15, Economics Department, Universitat Jaume I, Castellón (Spain).
    18. Mariam Camarero & Cecilio Tamarit, 2003. "Estimating exports and imports demand for Manufactured goods: The role of FDI," European Economy Group Working Papers 22, European Economy Group.

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