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Trade Policy, Exchange Rates, and Growth

In: Reform, Recovery, and Growth: Latin America and the Middle East

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  • Sebastian Edwards

Abstract

This paper analyzes the relationship between trade policy and economic performance. The paper is divided in two fundamental parts. The first one uses a cross country data set to investigate the relationship between trade policy and productivity growth. It is found that countries that are more open to the rest of the world have experienced faster growth in total factor productivity than countries with high trade barriers. In the second part the recent Latin American experiences with trade liberalization reforms are investigated. It is shown that in the last few years the Latin American countries have gone from having one of the most distorted external sectors, to having very low degrees of protectionism. The extent of the liberalization efforts is documented and the effect on productivity and exports is investigated.

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This chapter was published in:

  • Rudiger Dornbusch & Sebastian Edwards, 1995. "Reform, Recovery, and Growth: Latin America and the Middle East," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number dorn95-1.
    This item is provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Chapters with number 7649.

    Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberch:7649

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    1. Krueger, Anne O, 1978. "Alternative Trade Strategies and Employment in LDCs," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 68(2), pages 270-74, May.
    2. Dixit, Avinash, 1985. "Tax policy in open economies," Handbook of Public Economics, in: A. J. Auerbach & M. Feldstein (ed.), Handbook of Public Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 6, pages 313-374 Elsevier.
    3. Calvo, Guillermo A, 1978. "On the Time Consistency of Optimal Policy in a Monetary Economy," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 46(6), pages 1411-28, November.
    4. Fischer, Stanley, 1988. "Symposium on the Slowdown in Productivity Growth," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 2(4), pages 3-7, Fall.
    5. Corbo, Vittorio & De Melo, Jaime, 1985. "Overview and summary," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 13(8), pages 863-866, August.
    6. Kydland, Finn E & Prescott, Edward C, 1977. "Rules Rather Than Discretion: The Inconsistency of Optimal Plans," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 85(3), pages 473-91, June.
    7. McKinnon, Ronald I., 1982. "The order of economic liberalization: Lessons from Chile and Argentina," Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy, Elsevier, vol. 17(1), pages 159-186, January.
    8. Condon, Timothy & Corbo, Vittorio & de Melo, Jaime, 1985. "Productivity growth, external shocks, and capital inflows in Chile: A general equilibrium analysis," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 7(3), pages 379-405.
    9. Cukierman, Alex & Edwards, Sebastian & Tabellini, Guido, 1992. "Seigniorage and Political Instability," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(3), pages 537-55, June.
    10. Corden, W M, 1969. "Effective Protective Rates in the General Equilibrium Model: A Geometric Note," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 21(2), pages 135-41, July.
    11. Jere H. Behrman, 1976. "Foreign Trade Regimes and Economic Development: Chile," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number behr76-1.
    12. Edwards, Sebastian & Edwards, Alejandra Cox, 1991. "Monetarism and Liberalization," University of Chicago Press Economics Books, University of Chicago Press, edition 1, number 9780226184890, March.
    13. Lucas, Robert Jr., 1988. "On the mechanics of economic development," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 3-42, July.
    14. Edwards, Sebastian, 1988. "Real and monetary determinants of real exchange rate behavior: Theory and evidence from developing countries," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(3), pages 311-341, November.
    15. Robert J. Barro, 1989. "Economic Growth in a Cross Section of Countries," NBER Working Papers 3120, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    16. Peter Montiel & Bijan B. Aghevli & Mohsin S. Khan, 1991. "Exchange Rate Policy in Developing Countries," IMF Occasional Papers 78, International Monetary Fund.
    17. Robert P. Flood & Peter Isard, 1988. "Monetary Policy Strategies," NBER Working Papers 2770, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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    Cited by:
    1. David M. Gould, 1995. "Mexico's crisis: looking back to assess the future," Economic and Financial Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas, issue Q II, pages 2-12.
    2. Frederico Gonzaga Jayme Junior, 2001. "Balance-of-payments constrained economic growth in Brazil," Textos para Discussão Cedeplar-UFMG td155, Cedeplar, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais.
    3. Ramon Moreno, 2001. "Pegging and stabilization policy in developing countries," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, pages 17-29.
    4. BEN ALI Mohamed Sami, 2006. "Capital Account Liberalization And Exchange Rate Regime Choice, What Scope For Flexibility In Tunisia?," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series wp815, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
    5. Schröder, Marcel, 2013. "Should developing countries undervalue their currencies?," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 105(C), pages 140-151.
    6. Dang, D Anh, 2010. "Trade Liberalization and Institutional Quality: Evidence from Vietnam," MPRA Paper 26346, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 31 Aug 2010.
    7. Hoffmaister, Alexander W. & Pradhan, Mahmood & Samiei, Hossein, 1998. "Have North-South growth linkages changed?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 26(5), pages 791-808, May.
    8. Bailliu, Jeannine & Lafrance, Robert & Perrault, Jean-Francois, 2003. "Does Exchange Rate Policy Matter for Growth?," International Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 6(3), pages 381-414, Winter.
    9. Jeffrey Frankel & Andrew Rose, 2002. "An Estimate Of The Effect Of Common Currencies On Trade And Income," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 117(2), pages 437-466, May.
    10. Kim, Se-Jik & Kim, Yong Jin, 2000. "Growth gains from trade and education," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(2), pages 519-545, April.
    11. Lopez, Juan J., 1998. "Private Investment Response to Neoliberal Reforms in a Delegative Democracy: Reflections on Argentina," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 38(3, Part 1), pages 441-457.
    12. Jeffrey A. Frankel & David Romer, 1996. "Trade and Growth: An Empirical Investigation," NBER Working Papers 5476, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    13. Frederico Gonzaga Jayme Jr, 2001. "Notes on trade and growth," Textos para Discussão Cedeplar-UFMG td166, Cedeplar, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais.
    14. Jeffrey A. Frankel, David Romer and Teresa Cyrus., 1995. "Trade and Growth in East Asian Countries: Cause and Effect?," Center for International and Development Economics Research (CIDER) Working Papers C95-050, University of California at Berkeley.
    15. Sebastian Edwards, 2011. "Exchange Rates in Emerging Countries: Eleven Empirical Regularities from Latin America and East Asia," NBER Working Papers 17074, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    16. Kamin, Steven B., 2001. "Real exchange rates and inflation in exchange-rate-based stabilizations: an empirical examination," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 64(1), pages 237-253, February.
    17. Ana Flávia Machado & Frederico G. Jayme Jr, 2002. "Trade liberalization and labor market in Brazil: impacts on employment and wages in tradeables and nontradeables sectors," Textos para Discussão Cedeplar-UFMG td174, Cedeplar, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais.
    18. Fernando Lefort & Klaus Schmidt-Hebbel, 2002. "Indexation, Inflation and Monetary Policy: An Overview," Central Banking, Analysis, and Economic Policies Book Series, in: Fernando Lefort & Klaus Schmidt-Hebbel & Norman Loayza (Series Editor) & Klaus Schmidt-Hebbel (Serie (ed.), Indexation, Inflation and MOnetary Policy, edition 1, volume 2, chapter 1, pages 001-018 Central Bank of Chile.

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