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In Search of Real Rigidities

In: NBER Macroeconomics Annual 2010, Volume 25

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  • Gita Gopinath
  • Oleg Itskhoki

Abstract

The closed and open economy literatures both work on evaluating the role of real rigidities, but in parallel. This paper brings the two literatures together. We use international price data and exchange rate shocks to evaluate the importance of real rigidities in price setting. We show that, consistent with the presence of real rigidities, the response of reset-price inflation to exchange rate shocks exhibits significant persistence. Individual import prices, conditional on changing, respond to exchange rate shocks prior to the last price change. At the same time, aggregate reset-price inflation for imports, like that for consumer prices, exhibits little persistence. Competitor prices affect firm pricing, and exchange rate pass-through into import prices is greater in response to trade-weighted, as opposed to bilateral, exchange rate shocks. We quantitatively evaluate sticky-price models (Calvo and menu cost) with variable markups at the wholesale level and constant markups at the retail level, consistent with empirical evidence. Variable markups alone generate price sluggishness at the aggregate level, while they fall short of matching price persistence at the micro level. Finally, variable markups magnify the size of the contract multiplier, but their absolute effects are modest unless they are coupled with exogenous sources of persistence.

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This chapter was published in:

  • Daron Acemoglu & Michael Woodford, 2011. "NBER Macroeconomics Annual 2010, Volume 25," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number acem10-1, May.
    This item is provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Chapters with number 12033.

    Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberch:12033

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    1. Gita Gopinath & Pierre-Olivier Gourinchas & Chang-Tai Hsieh & Nicholas Li, 2009. "Estimating the border effect: some new evidence," Working Papers 09-10, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
    2. Basu, Susanto, 1995. "Intermediate Goods and Business Cycles: Implications for Productivity and Welfare," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 85(3), pages 512-31, June.
    3. Jonathan L. Willis & Peter J. Klenow, 2007. "Real Rigidities and Nominal Price Changes," 2007 Meeting Papers 844, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    4. Emi Nakamura & Dawit Zerom, 2009. "Accounting for Incomplete Pass-Through," NBER Working Papers 15255, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    5. Gita Gopinath & Roberto Rigobon, 2006. "Sticky Borders," NBER Working Papers 12095, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    6. Berman, Nicolas & Martin, Philippe & Mayer, Thierry, 2009. "How do different exporters react to exchange rate changes? Theory, empirics and aggregate implications," CEPR Discussion Papers 7493, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    7. Christian Hellwig & Ariel Burstein, 2007. "Prices and Market Shares in a Menu Cost Model," 2007 Meeting Papers 327, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    8. Caplin, Andrew S & Spulber, Daniel F, 1987. "Menu Costs and the Neutrality of Money," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 102(4), pages 703-25, November.
    9. Mark Bils & Peter J. Klenow & Benjamin A. Malin, 2009. "Reset price inflation and the impact of monetary policy shocks," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2009-16, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    10. Pinelopi Koujianou Goldberg & Rebecca Hellerstein, 2008. "A Framework for Identifying the Sources of Local-Currency Price Stability with an Empirical Application," Working Papers 1161, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Center for Economic Policy Studies..
    11. Richard Pomfret & Patricia Sourdin, 2010. "Why do trade costs vary?," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer, vol. 146(4), pages 709-730, December.
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    Cited by:
    1. Miguel Casares & Luca Deidda & Jose E. Galdon-Sanchez, 2013. "Business cycle and monetary policy analysis with market rigidities and financial frictions," Documentos de Trabajo - Lan Gaiak Departamento de Economía - Universidad Pública de Navarra 1304, Departamento de Economía - Universidad Pública de Navarra.
    2. Cavallari Lilia, 2011. "Firms entry, monetary policy and the international business cycle," wp.comunite 0086, Department of Communication, University of Teramo.
    3. Raphael A. Auer, 2012. "Exchange Rate Pass-Through, Domestic Competition, and Inflation: Evidence from the 2005/08 Revaluation of the Renminbi," CESifo Working Paper Series 3759, CESifo Group Munich.
    4. Raphael A. Auer & Thomas Chaney & Philip Sauré, 2012. "Quality pricing-to-market," Globalization and Monetary Policy Institute Working Paper 125, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas.
    5. Marco Bonomo & Marcelo Medeiros & Arnildo Correa, 2011. "Estimating Strategic Complementarity in a State-Dependent Pricing Model," 2011 Meeting Papers 691, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    6. Ariel Burstein & Gita Gopinath, 2013. "International Prices and Exchange Rates," NBER Working Papers 18829, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    7. Mirko Abbritti, 2012. "Product Market Frictions, Bargaining and Pass-Through," Faculty Working Papers 19/12, School of Economics and Business Administration, University of Navarra.
    8. Emi Nakamura & J�n Steinsson, 2013. "Price Rigidity: Microeconomic Evidence and Macroeconomic Implications," Annual Review of Economics, Annual Reviews, vol. 5(1), pages 133-163, 05.
    9. Luigi Paciello & Andrea Pozzi & Nicholas Trachter, 2013. "Price Setting with Customer Retention," EIEF Working Papers Series 1328, Einaudi Institute for Economics and Finance (EIEF), revised Nov 2013.

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