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The Right Skills for the Job? Rethinking Training Policies for Workers

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Author Info

  • Rita Almeida
  • Jere Behrman
  • David Robalino

Abstract

This book addresses the question of how to build and upgrade job relevant skills. Specifically, the authors focus on three types of training programs relevant for individuals who are leaving formal general schooling or are already in the labor market: pre-employment technical and vocational education and training (TVET); on-the-job training (OJT); and training-related active labor market programs (ALMPs). ALMPs are usually of shorter duration and target individuals who are seeking a second chance and who do not have access to TVET or OJT; these are often low-skilled unemployed or informal workers. Contrary to training-related ALMPs, pre-employment TVET is usually offered within the formal schooling track and tends to be administered by the ministries of education. The book discusses the main justifications for these programs and how they relate to market failures that can lead to underinvestment in training and misalignment between supply and demand for skills. Unfortunately, governments are also prone to failure and many of the programs that countries have adopted today are part of the problem and not the solution. This book proposes options to improve the design and implementation of current skills development systems. Clearly, the authors cannot cover all issues in detail. Training methods among TVET, OJT, and ALMP programs are quite different, ranging from classroom instruction, laboratory research, TVET workshops, and apprenticeship arrangements and internships in firms. All have different challenges and specificities. The report highlights the most important design features of the different programs and points to the main knowledge gaps and areas for future research and analysis. The book is organized into five chapters. Following this overview, chapter two introduces the policy framework that guides the analysis in the book. This framework describes the main market and government failures that require attention and identifies potential interventions to address them. Chapter's three to five then discuss the main challenges facing, respectively, TVET, OJT, and training-related ALMP programs and outlines recommendations to address them. The rest of this overview summarizes the main messages from each of the chapters and in the last section outlines the main knowledge gaps and proposes an agenda for future research and policy analysis.

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Bibliographic Info

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This book is provided by The World Bank in its series World Bank Publications with number 13075 and published in 2012.

ISBN: 978-0-8213-8714-6
Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbpubs:13075

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Postal: 1818 H Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20433
Phone: (202) 477-1234
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Web page: https://openknowledge.worldbank.org
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Related research

Keywords: Education - Primary Education Education - Access & Equity in Basic Education Education - Education For All Social Protections and Labor - Labor Policies Information and Communication Technologies - ICT Policy and Strategies;

References

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  1. Ninno, Carlo del & Subbarao, Kalanidhi & Milazzo, Annamaria, 2009. "How to make public works work : a review of the experiences," Social Protection Discussion Papers 48567, The World Bank.
  2. Galasso, Emanuela & Ravallion, Martin, 2003. "Social protection in a crisis - Argentina's Plan Jefes y Jefas," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3165, The World Bank.
  3. David Card & Jochen Kluve & Andrea Weber, 2009. "Active Labor Market Policy Evaluations – A Meta-analysis," Ruhr Economic Papers 0086, Rheinisch-Westfälisches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universität Dortmund, Universität Duisburg-Essen.
  4. Michael Lechner & Ruth Miquel & Conny Wunsch, 2004. "Long-run Effects of Public Sector Sponsored Training in West Germany," University of St. Gallen Department of Economics working paper series 2004 2004-19, Department of Economics, University of St. Gallen.
  5. Jochen Kluve & Hilmar Schneider & Arne Uhlendorff & Zhong Zhao, 2007. "Evaluating Continuous Training Programs Using the Generalized Propensity Score," Ruhr Economic Papers 0035, Rheinisch-Westfälisches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universität Dortmund, Universität Duisburg-Essen.
  6. John Van Reenen, 2004. "Active Labor Market Policies and the British New Deal for the Young Unemployed in Context," NBER Chapters, in: Seeking a Premier Economy: The Economic Effects of British Economic Reforms, 1980-2000, pages 461-496 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. Helena Ribe & David A. Robalino & Ian Walker, 2012. "From Right to Reality : Incentives, Labor Markets, and the Challenge of Universal Social Protection in Latin America and the Caribbean," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 6008, March.
  8. Brewer, Laura, 2004. "Youth at risk : the role of skills development in facilitating the transition to work," ILO Working Papers 373389, International Labour Organization.
  9. Diego Angel-Urdinola & Amina Semlali, 2010. "Labor Markets and School-to-Work Transition in Egypt : Diagnostics, Constraints, and Policy Framework," World Bank Other Operational Studies 13050, The World Bank.
  10. Kluve, Jochen, 2010. "The effectiveness of European active labor market programs," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(6), pages 904-918, December.
  11. Núria Rodríguez-Planas & Jacob Benus, 2007. "Evaluating Active Labor Markets in Romania," UFAE and IAE Working Papers 699.07, Unitat de Fonaments de l'Anàlisi Econòmica (UAB) and Institut d'Anàlisi Econòmica (CSIC).
  12. Betcherman, Gordon & Olivas, Karina & Dar, Amit, 2004. "Impacts of active labor market programs : new evidence from evaluations with particular attention to developing and transition countries," Social Protection Discussion Papers 29142, The World Bank.
  13. Pablo Ibarraran & David Rosas Shady, 2009. "Evaluating the impact of job training programmes in Latin America: evidence from IDB funded operations," Journal of Development Effectiveness, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 1(2), pages 195-216.
  14. Marito Garcia & Jean Fares, 2008. "Youth in Africa's Labor Market," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 6578, March.
  15. Blom, Andreas & Saeki, Hiroshi, 2011. "Employability and skill set of newly graduated engineers in India," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5640, The World Bank.
  16. Dorsett, Richard, 2006. "The new deal for young people: effect on the labour market status of young men," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(3), pages 405-422, June.
  17. Richard K. Johanson & Arvil V. Adams, 2004. "Skills Development in Sub-Saharan Africa," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 15028, March.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. World Bank, 2013. "Reviving Romania's Growth and Convergence Challenges and Opportunities : A Country Economic Memorandum," World Bank Other Operational Studies 16036, The World Bank.
  2. Dutz, Mark A., 2013. "Resource reallocation and innovation : converting enterprise risks into opportunities," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6534, The World Bank.
  3. Eichhorst, Werner & Rodríguez-Planas, Núria & Schmidl, Ricarda & Zimmermann, Klaus F., 2012. "A Roadmap to Vocational Education and Training Systems Around the World," IZA Discussion Papers 7110, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  4. World Bank & National Research University – Higher School of Economics, 2013. "Developing Skills for Innovative Growth in the Russian Federation," World Bank Other Operational Studies 16100, The World Bank.

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