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Dynamiques des Entreprises Agroalimentaires (EAA) du Languedoc-Roussillon : évolutions 1998-2003. Programme de recherche PSDR 2001-2006 financé par l'Inra et la Région Languedoc-Roussillon

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  • Couderc, J.P.
  • Couderc, M.

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Abstract

It was the title chosen in January 2004 for the 12 pages of the "Agreste" restitution of the primary results obtained through this second investigation, to the partners and interviewed firms, which was intended to question the evolutions of the regional agro-food sphere over 5 years (1998-2003). Let us recall that the survey of 1998 was implemented just after the 1992-1995 crisis, and therefore reflected a certain optimism. The situation is far from being similar in 2003, whereas a new crisis has been hitting the global economy since 2001 and, consequently, the consumer has become more cautious. The principal lessons of this investigation appear to be of three orders: 1. Reduction in the number of establishments and firms. Many establishments disappeared (404 out of the 1.384 listed in 1998), but one should also note many creations (194), confirming a real dynamism of the regional agro-food sector. The sales progression, with total sales now reaching nearly 8 billion d'euros, even if it is not very high, implies a concentration of the offer, which is hardly surprising in times of crisis. The good news, under these conditions, is the total resistance of the total employment still reaching around 25.000 full time equivalents. 2. The driving effect on the regional agriculture is very important (nearly 50% of raw agricultural goods purchases come from the area), and 70% of the interviewed chief executives declare to primarily buy from regional producers and suppliers. The added value created by these companies, which is upstream induced, as much in agriculture as in industrial supplies or as in services, is undoubtedly, except perhaps for the public works and construction sectors, the most important among the regional industries. 3. More and more regional companies are becoming "subcontractors", without real decision-making power concerning their future. This relative `forfeiture' of their independence is initially due to a governance which flees the area: the repurchases of regional companies of average size by larger national or international firms often result in the suppression of any human and decisional structure but for production in the region. The increasing dependence on the discount distribution circuits, the companies `privately owned brands' substitution by `low prices' and `buyers own brands' products, proceed from the same weakening of the regional `governance'. On the basis of the principle that the current markets are saturated and the prices of the `standard' current products can only continue to drop, it thus remains the most difficult to achieve: finding new markets and/or finding new products or services. With the current stagnation coming to an end (at least if one believes in these last months economic indicators), an agro-food dynamic and durable revival in Languedoc Roussillon can, according to our understanding, only come from the reinforcement of three strategic orientations in the near future: to innovate more, to better defend its private brands and to export more. The articles presented in this 'research journal' explore these orientations, put forward managing implications resulting from the observed results and propose some directions for future research. ...French Abstract : Tel fut le titre choisi en janvier 2004 pour le 12 pages de restitution "Agreste", auprès des partenaires et entreprises, des premiers résultats obtenus par cette deuxième enquête destinée à sonder l'évolution sur 5 ans (1998-2003) de la sphère agroalimentaire régionale. Rappelons que l'enquête de 1998 se situait en 'sortie' de la crise de 1992-1995 et reflétait un certain optimisme. Il n'en est pas de même en 2003, alors qu'une nouvelle crise rend l'économie globale plutôt atone depuis 2001, et, par voie de conséquence, le consommateur plus frileux. Les principales leçons de l'enquête nous semblent être de trois ordres : 1. Diminution du nombre d'établissements et d'entreprises. Beaucoup d'établissements ont disparu (404 sur les 1 384 recensés en 1998), mais on constate aussi de nombreuses créations (194), confirmant un réel dynamisme de l'agroalimentaire régional. La progression du CA à près de 8 milliards d'euros, même si elle n'est pas très forte, implique un phénomène de concentration de l'offre, qui n'est guère surprenant en temps de crise. La bonne nouvelle, dans ces conditions, c'est le maintien global de l'emploi dans ces entreprises autour de 25 000 équivalents temps plein. 2. L'effet d'entraînement sur l'agriculture régionale est très important (près de 50% des achats de matières premières agricoles proviennent de la région) et 70% des chefs d'entreprise déclarent s'approvisionner auprès de producteurs et fournisseurs régionaux. La valeur ajoutée créée par les entreprises, et celle qui est induite en amont, tant dans l'agriculture que dans l'agro-industrie ou les services est sans doute, à l'exception peut-être du secteur des travaux publics et de la construction, la plus importante de l'industrie régionale. 3. Toujours plus d'entreprises régionales deviennent des " sous-traitants ", sans réel pouvoir de décision concernant leur devenir. Cette relative 'déchéance' de leur libre arbitre tient d'abord à une gouvernance qui fuit la région : les rachats d'entreprises régionales de taille moyenne par des firmes de plus grande taille se traduit souvent par la suppression de toute structure humaine et décisionnelle autre que de production en région. La dépendance croissante envers les circuits de discount, la substitution des 'marques propres' des entreprises par des produits 'premiers prix' et 'sous marque de distributeur', procède du même affaiblissement de la gouvernance régionale. Partant de ce principe que les marchés actuels sont saturés et que les prix des produits 'standards' actuels ne peuvent que continuer de baisser, il reste donc le plus difficile à accomplir : trouver de nouveaux débouchés et/ou trouver de nouveaux produits ou services. A l'aube d'une sortie de l'actuel marasme (du moins si l'on en croit les indicateurs économiques de ces derniers mois), une relance durable de la dynamique agroalimentaire du Languedoc Roussillon ne peut donc, à notre sens, provenir que du renforcement de trois orientations stratégiques porteuses d'avenir : innover plus, mieux défendre ses marques et exporter plus. Les articles présentés dans ce cahier de recherche explorent ces orientations, mettent en exergue les implications managériales issues des résultats observés et présentent les pistes de recherche future.

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Bibliographic Info

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This book is provided by UMR MOISA : Marchés, Organisations, Institutions et Stratégies d'Acteurs : CIHEAM-IAMM, CIRAD, INRA, Montpellier SupAgro, IRD - Montpellier, France in its series Research serial MOISA with number 200603 and published in 2006.

Handle: RePEc:umr:ecbook:200603

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Keywords: CORPORATE STRATEGY; INNOVATION; SME; FOOD INDUSTRY; BRAND; FINANCING; GROWTH; PERFORMANCE; QUALITY; TERROIR; GOVERNANCE; WINE PROCESSING INDUSTRY; NICT; LANGUEDOC ROUSSILLON;

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  1. Steven Casper & Catherine Matraves, 1997. "Corporate Governance and Firm Strategy in the Pharmaceutical Industry," CIG Working Papers FS IV 97-20, Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin (WZB), Research Unit: Competition and Innovation (CIG).
  2. Gérard Charreaux, 1996. "Vers une théorie du gouvernement des entreprises," Working Papers CREGO 0960501, Université de Bourgogne - CREGO EA7317 Centre de recherches en gestion des organisations.
  3. Mary O’Sullivan & William Lazonick, . "Corporate Governance and the Innovative Economy: Policy Implications," STEP Report series 199803, The STEP Group, Studies in technology, innovation and economic policy.
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