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Appropriation des dispositifs de reconnaissance dans l'agriculture familiale du Sud-Brésilien. Programme de recherche INRA-CIRAD 2002-2004 en partenariat avec l'UFSC

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  • Desplobins, G.
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    Abstract

    The capacity of family agriculture in Brazil to meet the challenge of producing a large diversity of food products, characterized by subjective attributes, corresponding to specific needs, and using the appropriate technologies or know-how, represents, jointly with proximity, its main competitive advantage. Revenues are an essential condition for long term sustainability of family agriculture. This type of agriculture evolves in an open economy, impacted by intense rivalry, but it offers new opportunities in terms of market segmentation. In this context, processes of product qualification are a commercial option. However, the simple recognition of these products is not a sufficient condition to ensure the protection of production certified. The North-South transfer of some institutional and juridical models related with the official certification standards therefore requires, in the same way as the technology transfer, a previous work in terms of adaptation-appropriation by the producers themselves. This process is part of the social history of the farmers' communities. A study was carried out in the State of Santa Catarina and included three types of products: viticulture, organic agriculture and those named as "fermier", such as the case of "caipira" chicken. Our findings suggest evidence of the incompleteness and heterogeneity of standards used to identify those products. Also, this research confirms a growing trend towards the exclusion of some types of production from the systems of formal certification. It also suggests the privatisation of those standards by both industrial operators and large retailers ...French Abstract : L'aptitude de l'Agriculture Familiale brésilienne à produire des aliments différents et variés, chargés d'attributs subjectifs, répondant à des besoins spécifiques et mobilisant des technologies ou des savoir-faire singuliers, représente son principal avantage concurrentiel avec celui de la proximité. Considérant que le revenu est une condition de sa pérennité et qu'elle évolue dans une économie ouverte et fortement concurrentielle, mais qui offre de nouvelles opportunités en matière de segmentation des marchés, les processus de qualification des produits apparaissent comme une option commerciale. Le simple marquage de ceux-ci ne peut cependant suffire à assurer la protection des producteurs pour lesquels la certification a été conçue. Le transfert Nord-Sud de certains modèles institutionnels et juridiques qui sous-tendent les dispositifs officiels de certification, nécessite alors au même titre que les transferts de technologie, un travail d'adaptation-appropriation de la part des producteurs eux-mêmes. Ce processus inscrit dans l'histoire sociale des communautés paysannes concernées, est étudié dans l'Etat du Santa Catarina à travers trois types de produits, ceux de la viticulture, de l'Agriculture Biologique et ceux qualifiés de "fermier" à l'exemple du poulet " caipira ". Outre le caractère inachevé et hétérogène des dispositifs de reconnaissance rencontrés, cette étude confirme une tendance croissante à l'exclusion de certains groupes productifs des systèmes de certification formalisés, ainsi qu'à la privatisation des dispositifs de reconnaissance par les opérateurs industriels ou ceux de la grande distribution. ...Spanish Abstract : La aptitud de la Agricultura familiar brasilera para producir alimentos diferenciados y variados, con atributos subjetivos, que responden a necesidades específicas y que movilizan tecnologías o " saber-hacer " singulares, representa junto a la proximidad su principal ventaja concurrencial. Considerando que la renta es una condición de su perennidad y que ella evoluciona en una economía abierta y fuertemente competitiva, pero que oferece nuevas oportunidades en materia de segmentación de mercados, los procesos de calificacion de productos aparecen como una opcion comercial. La marca de los productos no es suficiente para asegurar la proteción de los productores para lo cual la cerfitifación ha sido concebida. La transferencia Norte-Sur de ciertos modelos institucionales y jurídicos que sostienen los dispositivos oficiales de certificación, necesita al mismo tiempo que las transferencias de tecnología, un trabajo de adaptación-apropiación de parte de los mismos productores. Ese proceso inscripto en la historia social de las comunidades paisanas implicadas, es estudiado en el estado de Santa Catarina a travez de tres tipos de productos, aquellos de la viticultura, de la agricultura biológica y aquellos calificados de " granja " como por ejemplo el pollo " caipira ". Mas allá del carácter incompleto y heterogéneo de los dispositivos de reconocimiento encontrados, este estudio confirma una tendencia creciente a la exclusión de ciertos grupos productivos de sistemas de certificación formalizados, asi como la privatización de dispositivos de reconocimiento por los operadores industriales o de aquellos de la gran distribución.

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    Bibliographic Info

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    This book is provided by UMR MOISA : Marchés, Organisations, Institutions et Stratégies d'Acteurs : CIHEAM-IAMM, CIRAD, INRA, Montpellier SupAgro, IRD - Montpellier, France in its series Research serial MOISA with number 200502 and published in 2005.

    Handle: RePEc:umr:ecbook:200502

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    Related research

    Keywords: FAMILY FARMS; QUALIFICATION; CERTIFICATION; EXCLUSION; QUALITY SIGNAL; WINEGROWING; WINE PRODUCTS; ORGANIC PRODUCTS; TRADITIONAL FARM PRODUCTS; CHICKEN; BRAZIL;

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