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Inequality and Instability: A Study of the World Economy Just Before the Great Crisis

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  • Galbraith, James K.

    (University of Texas at Austin)

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    Abstract

    Inequality is a charged topic. Measures of income inequality rose in the USA in the 1990s to levels not seen since 1929 and gave rise to a suspicion, not for the first time, of a link between radical inequality and financial instability with a resulting crisis under capitalism. Professional macroeconomists have generally taken little interest in inequality because, within the parameters of traditional economic theory, the economy will stabilize itself at full employment. In addition, enlightened economists could enact stabilizing measures to manage any imbalances. The dominant voices among academic economists were unable to interpret the causal forces at work during both the Great Depression and the recent global financial crisis. In Inequality and Instability, James K. Galbraith argues that since there has been no serious work done on the macroeconomic effects of inequality, new sources of evidence are required. Galbraith offers for the first time a vast expansion of the capacity to calculate measures of inequality both at lower and higher levels of aggregation. Instead of measuring inequality as traditionally done, by country, Galbraith insists that to understand real differences that have real effects, inequality must be examined through both smaller and larger administrative units, like sub-national levels within and between states and provinces, multinational continental economies, and the world. He points out that inequality could be captured by measures across administrative boundaries to capture data on more specific groups to which people belong. For example, in China, economic inequality reflects the difference in average income levels between city and countryside, or between coastal regions and the interior, and a simple ratio averages would be an indicator of trends in inequality over the country as a whole. In a comprehensive presentation of this new method of using data, Inequality and Instability offers an unequaled look at the US economy and various global economies that was not accessible to us before. This provides a more sophisticated and a more accurate picture of inequality around the world, and how inequality is one of the most basic sources of economic instability.

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    Bibliographic Info

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    This book is provided by Oxford University Press in its series OUP Catalogue with number 9780199855650 and published in 2012.

    ISBN: 9780199855650
    Order: http://ukcatalogue.oup.com/product/9780199855650.do
    Handle: RePEc:oxp:obooks:9780199855650

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    Cited by:
    1. Greg Hannsgen & Dimitri B. Papadimitriou, 2012. "Fiscal Traps and Macro Policy after the Eurozone Crisis," Economics Public Policy Brief Archive ppb_127, Levy Economics Institute.
    2. Osberg, Lars, 2013. "Instability implications of increasing inequality: Evidence from North America," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 35(C), pages 918-930.
    3. Unal Tongur & Adem Yavuz Elveren, 2013. "Deunionization and Pay Inequality in OECD Countries: A Panel Granger Causality Approach," ERC Working Papers 1306, ERC - Economic Research Center, Middle East Technical University, revised May 2013.
    4. Greg Hannsgen, 2012. "Fiscal Policy, Unemployment Insurance, and Financial Crises in a Model of Growth and Distribution," Economics Working Paper Archive wp_723, Levy Economics Institute.
    5. Virginia Maestri & Andrea Roventini, 2012. "Inequality and Macroeconomic Factors: A Time-Series Analysis for a Set of OECD Countries," LEM Papers Series 2012/21, Laboratory of Economics and Management (LEM), Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, Pisa, Italy.
    6. Gonzalo Paz Pardo & José Manuel Sánchez Santos, 2014. "Household Debt and Consumption Inequality: The Spanish Case," Economies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 2(3), pages 147-170, July.
    7. Francesco Saraceno, 2014. "High inequality and its impact on the economy," Sciences Po publications info:hdl:2441/12hs8nng048, Sciences Po.
    8. Francesco Saraceno, 2014. "L'impact economique des fortes inégalités Problèmes et solutions," Sciences Po publications info:hdl:2441/gmkj8k1vf8t, Sciences Po.
    9. Till van Treeck, 2012. "Did inequality cause the U.S. financial crisis?," IMK Working Paper 91-2012, IMK at the Hans Boeckler Foundation, Macroeconomic Policy Institute.

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