European Banks and the American Challenge: Competition and Cooperation in International Banking Under Bretton Woods
AbstractThe book provides a fresh historical perspective on the internationalization of banking business and the emergence of the Euro-Dollar and Euro-Bond markets from the late 1950s to the early 1970s -- a process which laid the foundations of the subsequent financial globalization. Since the mid-1950s, multilateralism and rapidly growing trade among OECD countries, the gradual (though asymmetrical) relaxation of exchange controls, and the return to external convertibility had sowed the seeds of economic interdependence and financial integration. All these factors actively encouraged American and European banks to pursue the expansion of their international business, largely free of regulations and controls affecting their domestic activity. International banking of the 1960s was also the forge of a restless wave of financial innovations. In fact Euro-Dollars (along with other minor Euro-Currencies) and Euro-Bonds fostered the emergence of fast-growing international money and capital markets, mainly based in the City of London, which rapidly became the new frontier of growth for banking business. Aggressive behaviour of American banks in Europe, coupled with an efficient multinational structure and a remarkable degree of financial creativity, added a sharp competitive edge to Euro-banking. Following their multinational customers as much as escaping from cumbersome domestic regulation, US banks rapidly attained a dominant position in London, while establishing at the same time their footholds on the Continent. This volume is based primarily upon largely unexplored archive records and addreses original issues. The causes of the primacy of London as an international financial centre are investigated, as well as the impact of Euro-banking on British clearing banks as a boost towards liability management and business diversification. Some wider perspectives are also included, which focus on innovative strategies designed by European banks -- such as consortium banking and other cooperative ventures -- in response both to the American challenge and to the establishment of the European Community. Contributors to this volume - Stefano Battilossi (Universidad Carlos III, Madrid; London School of Economics) Eric Bussiere (University of Paris IV) Youssef Cassis (University of Grenoble II; London School of Economics) Harold James (Princeton University) Ulrich Ramm (Chief Economist and Executive Vice-President, Commerzbank AG, Frankfurt am Main) Duncan M. Ross (University of Glasgow) Catherine R. Schenk (University of Glasgow) Richard Sylla (Stern School of Business, New York University)
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Bibliographic InfoThis book is provided by Oxford University Press in its series OUP Catalogue with number 9780199250271 and published in 2002.
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- Dirk Engelmann & Jan Hanousek & Evžen Kocenda, 2004. "Instability in Exchange Rates of the World Leading Currencies: Implications of a Spatial Competition Model among Central Banks," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 2004-686, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
- Dirk Engelmann & Jan Hanousek & Evzen Kocenda, 2004. "Instability in Exchange Rates of the World Leading Currencies: Implications of a Spatial Competition Model among Central Banks (Currencies, Competition, and Clans)," Macroeconomics 0406003, EconWPA.
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