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Optimal price promotion in the presence of asymmetric reference-price effects

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Author Info

  • Gadi Fibich

    (Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel)

  • Arieh Gavious

    (Ben Gurion University, Beer-Sheva, Israel)

  • Oded Lowengart

    (Ben Gurion University, Beer-Sheva, Israel)

Abstract

In this study we demonstrate how a reference price may affect the degree of price rigidity|flexibility. For this, we construct a model of reference-price formation, which we use to analyze the effect of asymmetric reference price (cut 'effects') on the profitability of price promotions. We derive explicit expressions for the additional profits earned during a promotional period due to consumer perception of a 'gain', and for the post-promotion loss of potential profits due to consumer perception of a 'loss'. We show that when effects of losses on demand are greater than effects of gains ('loss aversion'), price promotions always lead to a decline in profits. When, however, effects of gains are larger than those of losses, price promotions, as well as reverse price promotions (i.e. price increase) can be profitable. In the latter case we calculate the optimal depth and duration of a price promotion. We also show that reference price can affect price rigidity and flexibility. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10.1002/mde.1333
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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. in its journal Managerial and Decision Economics.

Volume (Year): 28 (2007)
Issue (Month): 6 ()
Pages: 569-577

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Handle: RePEc:wly:mgtdec:v:28:y:2007:i:6:p:569-577

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Web page: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/jhome/7976

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References

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  1. Dutta, Shantanu, et al, 1999. "Menu Costs, Posted Prices, and Multiproduct Retailers," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 31(4), pages 683-703, November.
  2. Daniel Levy & Shantanu Dutta & Mark Bergen & Robert Venable, 2005. "Price Adjustment at Multiproduct Retailers," Industrial Organization 0505005, EconWPA.
  3. Kahneman, Daniel & Tversky, Amos, 1979. "Prospect Theory: An Analysis of Decision under Risk," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 47(2), pages 263-91, March.
  4. Praveen K. Kopalle & Ambar G. Rao & João L. Assunção, 1996. "Asymmetric Reference Price Effects and Dynamic Pricing Policies," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 15(1), pages 60-85.
  5. Eric A. Greenleaf, 1995. "The Impact of Reference Price Effects on the Profitability of Price Promotions," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 14(1), pages 82-104.
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Cited by:
  1. Daniel Levy & Sourav Ray & Haipeng (Allan) Chen & Mark Bergen, 2007. "Asymmetric Price Adjustment in the Small," Emory Economics 0703, Department of Economics, Emory University (Atlanta).
  2. Arieh Gavious & Oded Lowengart, 2012. "Price–quality relationship in the presence of asymmetric dynamic reference quality effects," Marketing Letters, Springer, vol. 23(1), pages 137-161, March.
  3. Alfred Taudes & Christian Rudloff, 2012. "Integrating inventory control and a price change in the presence of reference price effects: a two-period model," Computational Statistics, Springer, vol. 75(1), pages 29-65, February.
  4. Ran Spiegler, 2012. "Monopoly pricing when consumers are antagonized by unexpected price increases: a “cover version” of the Heidhues–Kőszegi–Rabin model," Economic Theory, Springer, vol. 51(3), pages 695-711, November.
  5. Zhang, Juan & Gou, Qinglong & Liang, Liang & Huang, Zhimin, 2013. "Supply chain coordination through cooperative advertising with reference price effect," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 41(2), pages 345-353.
  6. Zhou, Jidong, 2008. "Reference Dependence and Market Competition," MPRA Paper 9370, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  7. Daniel Levy, 2006. "Price Rigidity and Flexibility: Recent Theoretical Developments," Emory Economics 0608, Department of Economics, Emory University (Atlanta).

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