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An instrumental variables evaluation of the effect of antidepressant use on employment among HIV-infected women using antiretroviral therapy in the United States: 1996-2004

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Author Info

  • Omar Galárraga
  • David S. Salkever
  • Judith A. Cook

    (Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA)

  • Stephen J. Gange

    (Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA)

Abstract

Depression is a common condition among patients with HIV. This paper uses panel data for 1234 participants from the Women's Interagency HIV Study to estimate the effect of antidepressant use on the likelihood of being employed among women receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the United States from 1996 to 2004. We show that naive regressions of antidepressant use on employment generally result in negative or non-significant coefficients, whereas the instrumental variables (IVs) approach shows a positive and significant effect of antidepressant use on the employment probability of women living with HIV. We use IVs to predict antidepressant use independently of outcomes, thus addressing potential biases (e.g. more depressed women are more likely to receive antidepressant treatment, but they are also more likely to be unemployed). The results are consistent for linear (random and fixed effects) as well as non-linear (bivariate probit) specifications. Among women receiving HAART, and controlling for individual and local area labor market characteristics, the use of antidepressants is associated with a 29-percentage-point higher probability of being employed. Improved efforts to test, diagnose and treat depression among HIV-positive patients may improve not only clinical indicators but also labor market outcomes. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10.1002/hec.1458
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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. in its journal Health Economics.

Volume (Year): 19 (2010)
Issue (Month): 2 ()
Pages: 173-188

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Handle: RePEc:wly:hlthec:v:19:y:2010:i:2:p:173-188

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Web page: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/jhome/5749

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  2. James J. Heckman & Thomas E. MaCurdy, 1985. "A Simultaneous Equations Linear Probability Model," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 18(1), pages 28-37, February.
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  7. Susan L. Ettner & Richard G. Frank & Ronald C. Kessler, 1997. "The Impact of psychiatric disorders on labor market outcomes," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 51(1), pages 64-81, October.
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  10. Bernell, Stephanie Lazarus & Shinogle, Judith Ann, 2005. "The relationship between HAART use and employment for HIV-positive individuals: an empirical analysis and policy outlook," Health Policy, Elsevier, vol. 71(2), pages 255-264, February.
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  12. repec:fth:prinin:455 is not listed on IDEAS
  13. Douglas Staiger & James H. Stock, 1997. "Instrumental Variables Regression with Weak Instruments," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 65(3), pages 557-586, May.
  14. Christopher F Baum & Mark E Schaffer & Steven Stillman, 2002. "IVREG2: Stata module for extended instrumental variables/2SLS and GMM estimation," Statistical Software Components S425401, Boston College Department of Economics, revised 02 Jan 2014.
  15. Fone, David & Dunstan, Frank & Williams, Gareth & Lloyd, Keith & Palmer, Stephen, 2007. "Places, people and mental health: A multilevel analysis of economic inactivity," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 64(3), pages 633-645, February.
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  17. David Salkever & Eric Slade & Mustafa Karakus, 2006. "Differential Effects of Atypical versus Typical Antipsychotic Medication on Earnings of Schizophrenia Patients: Estimates from a Prospective Naturalistic Study," PharmacoEconomics, Springer Healthcare | Adis, vol. 24(2), pages 123-139.
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Cited by:
  1. García-Gómez, Pilar & Labeaga, José M. & Oliva, Juan, 2012. "Employment and wages of people living with HIV/AIDS," MERIT Working Papers 043, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).

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