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Demand for differentiated milk products: implications for price competition

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  • Elena Lopez

    (Department of Economics, University of Alcalá, Madrid, Spain)

  • Rigoberto A. Lopez

    (Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of Connecticult, Storrs, CT 0629-4021)

Abstract

The authors apply the Berry, Levinsohn, and Pakes (1995) model to scan data from Boston supermarkets augmented with consumer characteristics data to analyze consumer choices and price competition in a differentiated fluid milk market. Milk characteristics include price, fat content, brand name, and the organic and|or lactose-free nature of the product. Empirical results show that consumer valuation of fat decreases with income, but increases with the number of children. Low-fat and specialty milks, such as organic and lactose-free milks, are preferred by high-income consumers with no children. Although all milks are price elastic at the individual brand level, the cross-price elasticities are quite low and negligible for specialty milks. Based on calculated Lerner indexes, private label milks have the highest percent markups despite their lower prices, whereas specialty milks have the lowest markups despite their higher prices, which attests to a greater degree of market power for conventional and particularly for private label milk. [JEL Classification: D12, D40, L11, L81]. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10.1002/agr.20219
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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. in its journal Agribusiness.

Volume (Year): 25 (2009)
Issue (Month): 4 ()
Pages: 453-465

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Handle: RePEc:wly:agribz:v:25:y:2009:i:4:p:453-465

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Web page: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)1520-6297

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  1. Eliza M. Mojduszka & Julie A. Caswell & J. Michael Harris, 2001. "Consumer choice of food products and the implications for price competition and government policy," Agribusiness, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 17(1), pages 81-104.
  2. Dixit, Avinash K & Stiglitz, Joseph E, 1977. "Monopolistic Competition and Optimum Product Diversity," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 67(3), pages 297-308, June.
  3. Nevo, Aviv, 1998. "Measuring Market Power in the Ready-To-Eat Cereal Industry," Research Reports 25164, University of Connecticut, Food Marketing Policy Center.
  4. Deaton, Angus S & Muellbauer, John, 1980. "An Almost Ideal Demand System," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 70(3), pages 312-26, June.
  5. Benaissa Chidmi & Rigoberto A. Lopez & Ronald W. Cotterill, 2005. "Retail oligopoly power, dairy compact, and Boston milk prices," Agribusiness, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 21(4), pages 477-491.
  6. Steven T. Berry, 1994. "Estimating Discrete-Choice Models of Product Differentiation," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 25(2), pages 242-262, Summer.
  7. Sofia Berto Villas-Boas, 2007. "Vertical Relationships between Manufacturers and Retailers: Inference with Limited Data," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 74(2), pages 625-652.
  8. Lass, Daniel, 2005. "Asymmetric Response of Retail Milk Prices in the Northeast Revisited," Research Reports 149026, University of Connecticut, Food Marketing Policy Center.
  9. Johnson, Stanley R. & Stonehouse, D. Peter & Hassan, Zuhair A., 1992. "Market Demand for Dairy Products," Staff General Research Papers 575, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
  10. Ronald W. Cotterill & Pierre O. Samson, 2002. "Estimating a Brand-Level Demand System for American Cheese Products to Evaluate Unilateral and Coordinated Market Power Strategies," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 84(3), pages 817-823.
  11. Berry, Steven & Levinsohn, James & Pakes, Ariel, 1995. "Automobile Prices in Market Equilibrium," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 63(4), pages 841-90, July.
  12. Aviv Nevo, 2000. "A Practitioner's Guide to Estimation of Random-Coefficients Logit Models of Demand," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 9(4), pages 513-548, December.
  13. Kim, Donghun, 2004. "Estimation of the Effects of New Brands on Incumbents' Profits and Consumer Welfare: The U.S. Processed Cheese Market Case," Research Reports 25192, University of Connecticut, Food Marketing Policy Center.
  14. Benaissa Chidmi & Rigoberto A. Lopez, 2007. "Brand-Supermarket Demand for Breakfast Cereals and Retail Competition," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 89(2), pages 324-337.
  15. Daniel A. Lass, 2005. "Asymmetric response of retail milk prices in the northeast revisited," Agribusiness, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 21(4), pages 493-508.
  16. Junko Kinoshita & Nobuhiro Suzuki & Harry M. Kaiser, 2002. "Explaining pricing conduct in a product-differentiated oligopolistic market: An empirical application of a price conjectural variations model," Agribusiness, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 18(4), pages 427-436.
  17. Basak Canan & Ronald W. Cotterill, 2006. "Strategic pricing in a differentiated product oligopoly model: fluid milk in Boston," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 35(1), pages 27-33, 07.
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  19. Chidmi, Benaissa & Lopez, Rigoberto A., 2007. "AJAE Appendix: Brand-Supermarket Demand for Breakfast Cereals and Retail Competition," American Journal of Agricultural Economics Appendices, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 89(2), May.
  20. Rebecca Hellerstein, 2004. "Who Bears the Cost of a Change in the Exchange Rate?," Econometric Society 2004 North American Summer Meetings 589, Econometric Society.
  21. Junko Kinoshita & Nobuhiro Suzuki & Tamotsu Kawamura & Yasuhito Watanabe & Harry M. Kaiser, 2001. "Estimating own and cross brand price elasticities, and price-cost margin ratios using store-level daily scanner data," Agribusiness, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 17(4), pages 515-525.
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Cited by:
  1. Hovhannisyan, Vardges & Stiegert, Kyle W., 2011. "Vertical Channel Analysis of the U.S. Milk Market," 2011 Annual Meeting, July 24-26, 2011, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 103631, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.

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