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Predicting mergers and acquisitions in the food industry


Author Info

  • Adesoji Adelaja

    (Department of Agricultural, Food and Resource Economics, Cook College, Rutgers University, 55 Dudley Road, New Brunswick, NJ 08901)

  • Rodolfo Nayga

    (Department of Agricultural Economics, Texas A&M University, 334 Blocker Building, College Station, TX 77843-2124)

  • Zafar Farooq

    (Copelco Capital, Inc., One International Boulevard, Mahwah, NJ 07430)


Two logit models are estimated to explain merger and acquisition (M&A) activities in US food manufacturing using firm level data for public firms: a “target model” predicting the likelihood of a firm being targeted for M&A and a “takeover model” predicting the likelihood of a targeted firm being taken over. Target model results suggest the importance of firm liquidity, debt|leverage, profitability, growth in sales, stock earnings capacity, percentage of common stocks traded in the stock market, and market-to-book ratio. Activity or turnover ratio, firm size, and price-earnings ratio were not statistically significant. Takeover model results suggest the importance of degree of officer control, attitude surrounding the transaction, number of prior bids, existence of litigation during negotiations, and involvement of the bidder and|or target in other takeovers during negotiations. With predictive accuracy of 74.5 and 62.9%, respectively, these models suggest the systematic nature of M&A activities. © 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. in its journal Agribusiness.

Volume (Year): 15 (1999)
Issue (Month): 1 ()
Pages: 1-23

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Handle: RePEc:wly:agribz:v:15:y:1999:i:1:p:1-23

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  1. Tobin, James, 1969. "A General Equilibrium Approach to Monetary Theory," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 1(1), pages 15-29, February.
  2. Dodd, Peter & Ruback, Richard, 1977. "Tender offers and stockholder returns : An empirical analysis," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(3), pages 351-373, December.
  3. Langetieg, Terence C., 1978. "An application of a three-factor performance index to measure stockholder gains from merger," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 6(4), pages 365-383, December.
  4. Palepu, Krishna G., 1986. "Predicting takeover targets : A methodological and empirical analysis," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 8(1), pages 3-35, March.
  5. Stevens, Donald L., 1973. "Financial Characteristics of Merged Firms: A Multivariate Analysis," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 8(02), pages 149-158, March.
  6. Bruce W. Marion & Donghwan Kim, 1991. "Concentration change in selected food manufacturing industries: The influence of mergers vs. internal growth," Agribusiness, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 7(5), pages 415-431.
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Cited by:
  1. Kim, C.S. & Hallahan, Charles B. & Schaible, Glenn D. & Leath, Mack N., 2000. "A Decomposed Regression Model For Measuring Structural Changes In The Flour Milling Industry," 2000 Annual meeting, July 30-August 2, Tampa, FL 21834, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
  2. Oliver Ebneth & Ludwig Theuvsen, 2007. "Large mergers and acquisitions of European brewing groups-event study evidence on value creation," Agribusiness, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 23(3), pages 377-406.
  3. Theofanis Papageorgiou & Panayotis G. Michaelides & John G. Milios, 2011. "Technology and economic fluctuations in the US food sector (1958-2006): An empirical approach from a political economy perspective," International Journal of Social Economics, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 38(2), pages 140-164, January.
  4. Muehlfeld, Katrin & Weitzel, Utz & van Witteloostuijn, Arjen, 2011. "Mergers and acquisitions in the global food processing industry in 1986-2006," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(4), pages 466-479, August.
  5. Darren Hudson & Bill Herndon, 2004. "Mergers, Acquisitions, Joint Ventures and Strategic Alliances in Agricultural Cooperatives," Industrial Organization 0412006, EconWPA.
  6. Neumann, Gyde & Weiss, Christoph R., 2001. "Strukturwandel durch Fusionen im Ernährungssektor: Ein anhaltender Konzentrationsprozess?," German Journal of Agricultural Economics, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Department for Agricultural Economics, vol. 50(6).
  7. C.S. Kim & C. Hallahan & G. Schaible & G. Schluter, 2001. "Economic analysis of the changing structure of the U.S. flour milling industry," Agribusiness, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 17(1), pages 161-171.
  8. Richards, Timothy J. & Manfredo, Mark R., 2003. "Cooperative Mergers and Acquisitions: The Role of Capital Constraints," Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Western Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 28(01), April.
  9. Dirk van der Krogt & Jerker Nilsson & Viggo H�st, 2007. "The impact of cooperatives' risk aversion and equity capital constraints on their inter-firm consolidation and collaboration strategies-with an empirical study of the European dairy industry," Agribusiness, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 23(4), pages 453-472.


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