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Emissions Trading: ERCs or Allowances?

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  • Donald N. Dewees

Abstract

Emissions trading takes place from two alternative baselines: 1) emission reduction credits (ERCs) in which the baseline is existing regulations which are often activity-based; or 2) cap-and-trade which specifies the total allowable emissions. This paper examines the effects of these two tradable permit systems on marginal and average costs for the firm, using electricity generation as an example. The ERC system subsidizes the activity level to which it is tied and fails to incorporate the full cost of external harm into the product price. If the permit limit is chosen ef- ficiently, the cap-and-trade system is more effi - cient.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by University of Wisconsin Press in its journal Land Economics.

Volume (Year): 77 (2001)
Issue (Month): 4 ()
Pages: 513-526

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Handle: RePEc:uwp:landec:v:77:y:2001:i:4:p:513-526

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References

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  1. Helfand, Gloria E, 1991. "Standards versus Standards: The Effects of Different Pollution Restrictions," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 81(3), pages 622-34, June.
  2. Montgomery, W. David, 1972. "Markets in licenses and efficient pollution control programs," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 5(3), pages 395-418, December.
  3. Weitzman, Martin L, 1974. "Prices vs. Quantities," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 41(4), pages 477-91, October.
  4. Joskow, Paul L & Schmalensee, Richard & Bailey, Elizabeth M, 1998. "The Market for Sulfur Dioxide Emissions," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 88(4), pages 669-85, September.
  5. Michael Ari Prager & Thomas H. Klier & Richard H. Mattoon, 1996. "A mixed bag: assessment of market performance and firm trading behavior in the NOx RECLAIM program," Working Paper Series, Regional Economic Issues WP-96-12, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
  6. Reinert, Kenneth A. & Ratick, Samuel J., 1988. "A note on estimating a long-run average cost curve for flue gas desulfurization," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 30-34, March.
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Cited by:
  1. de, Vries Frans & Dijkstra, Bouwe R & McGinty, Matthew, 2011. "Emissions Trading and Intersectoral Dynamics: Absolute versus Relative Design Schemes," Stirling Economics Discussion Papers 2011-15, University of Stirling, Division of Economics.
  2. John Pezzey, 2003. "Emission Taxes and Tradeable Permits A Comparison of Views on Long-Run Efficiency," Environmental & Resource Economics, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 26(2), pages 329-342, October.
  3. Muller, Adrian & Sterner, Thomas, 2009. "Output and Abatement Effects of Allocation Readjustment in Permit Trade," Working Papers in Economics 413, University of Gothenburg, Department of Economics.
  4. Woodward, Richard T, 2010. "Double Dipping in Environmental Markets," MPRA Paper 26185, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  5. Woodward, Richard T. & Han, Manseung, 2004. "Double Dipping In Pollution Markets," 2004 Annual meeting, August 1-4, Denver, CO 20323, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
  6. Neil J. Buckley, 2004. "Short-Run Implications of Cap-and-Trade versus Baseline-and-Credit Emission Trading Plans: Experimental Evidence," McMaster Experimental Economics Laboratory Publications 2004-03, McMaster University.
  7. Neil J. Buckley & R. Andrew Muller & Stuart Mestelman, 2005. "Baseline-and-Credit Style Emission Trading Mechanisms: An Experimental Investigation of Economic Inefficiency," Department of Economics Working Papers 2005-04, McMaster University.
  8. Neil J. Buckley & R. Andrew Muller & Stuart Mestelman, 2005. "Baseline-and-Credit Emission Permit Trading: Experimental Evidence Under Variable Output Capacity," Department of Economics Working Papers 2005-03, McMaster University.
  9. V. Oikonomou & C. Jepma, 2008. "A framework on interactions of climate and energy policy instruments," Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, Springer, vol. 13(2), pages 131-156, February.
  10. Neil J. Buckley, 2004. "Short-Run Implications of Cap-and-Trade versus Baseline-and-Credit Emission Trading Plans: Experimental Evidence," Department of Economics Working Papers 2004-05, McMaster University.
  11. Evy Crals & Lode Vereeck, 2005. "Taxes, Tradable Rights and Transaction Costs," European Journal of Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 20(2), pages 199-223, September.
  12. Jan-Tjeerd Boom & Bouwe Dijkstra, 2009. "Permit Trading and Credit Trading: A Comparison of Cap-Based and Rate-Based Emissions Trading Under Perfect and Imperfect Competition," Environmental & Resource Economics, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 44(1), pages 107-136, September.
  13. Donald N. Dewees, 2003. "Price and Environment in Electricity Restructuring," Working Papers dewees-01-01, University of Toronto, Department of Economics.
  14. R. Andrew Muller, 1999. "Emissions trading without a quantity constraint," Department of Economics Working Papers 1999-13, McMaster University.
  15. Neil J. Buckley & R. Andrew Muller & Stuart Mestelman, 2004. "Cap-and-Trade versus Baseline-and-Credit Emission Trading Plans: Experimental Evidence Under Variable Output Capacity," McMaster Experimental Economics Laboratory Publications 2004-06, McMaster University.

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