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The Effect of Family Planning Programs on the Fertility of Welfare Recipients: Evidence from Medicaid Claims

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  • Jennifer M. Mellor

Abstract

Previous studies of U.S. publicly funded family planning services have produced conflicting and sometimes confounding results. These studies have relied exclusively on single-equation estimates of family planning program effectiveness. Economic theories suggest that single-equation estimates may understate program effectiveness when the same unobserved variable affects both the fertility outcome and contraceptive behavior. To eliminate the bias that may result from single-equation estimation, I use a bivariate probit model to estimate the effect of contraceptive acceptance on the individual's probability of giving birth. I employ a unique data set created from Maryland Medicaid claims records. Results from bivariate probit estimation show that contraceptive acceptance plays a much larger role in reducing fertility than single-equation estimates would suggest.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by University of Wisconsin Press in its journal Journal of Human Resources.

Volume (Year): 33 (1998)
Issue (Month): 4 ()
Pages: 866-895

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Handle: RePEc:uwp:jhriss:v:33:y:1998:i:4:p:866-895

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Web page: http://jhr.uwpress.org/

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  1. Elizabeth Stephen & Ronald Rindfuss & Frank Bean, 1988. "Racial differences in contraceptive choice: Complexity and implications," Demography, Springer, vol. 25(1), pages 53-70, February.
  2. J. A. Hausman, 1976. "Specification Tests in Econometrics," Working papers 185, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
  3. Joshua D. Angrist, 1991. "Instrumental Variables Estimation of Average Treatment Effects in Econometrics and Epidemiology," NBER Technical Working Papers 0115, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Rosenzweig, Mark R & Schultz, T Paul, 1985. "The Demand for and Supply of Births: Fertility and Its Life Cycle Consequences," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 75(5), pages 992-1015, December.
  5. Schultz, T.P., 1990. "Assessing Family Palnning Cost-Effectiveness: Applicability Of Individual Demand-Program Supply Framework," Papers 615, Yale - Economic Growth Center.
  6. Schultz, T. Paul, 1988. "Population programs: Measuring their impact on fertility and the personal distribution of their effects," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 10(1), pages 113-139, April.
  7. Blank, Rebecca M., 1989. "Analyzing the length of welfare spells," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(3), pages 245-273, August.
  8. Evans, William N & Oates, Wallace E & Schwab, Robert M, 1992. "Measuring Peer Group Effects: A Study of Teenage Behavior," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 100(5), pages 966-91, October.
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Cited by:
  1. Melissa S. Kearney & Phillip B. Levine, 2007. "Subsidized Contraception, Fertility, and Sexual Behavior," NBER Working Papers 13045, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Martha J. Bailey, 2013. "Fifty Years of Family Planning: New Evidence on the Long-Run Effects of Increasing Access to Contraception," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 46(1 (Spring), pages 341-409.
  3. Naci Mocan & Kaj Gittings, 2010. "The Impact of Incentives on Human Behavior: Can We Make it Disappear? The Case of the Death Penalty," NBER Chapters, in: The Economics of Crime: Lessons for and from Latin America, pages 379-418 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Thomas DeLeire & Leonard M. Lopoo & Kosali I. Simon, 2007. "Medicaid Expansions and Fertility in the United States," NBER Working Papers 12907, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Frenette, Marc & Picot, Garnett & Sceviour, Roger, 2004. "When do they leave? The dynamics of living in low-income neighbourhoods," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(3), pages 484-504, November.
  6. Frenette, Marc, 2004. "The overqualified Canadian graduate: the role of the academic program in the incidence, persistence, and economic returns to overqualification," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 23(1), pages 29-45, February.
  7. Martha J. Bailey, 2011. "Reexamining the Impact of Family Planning Programs on U.S. Fertility: Evidence from the War on Poverty and the Early Years of Title X," NBER Working Papers 17343, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. Bundervoet, Tom, 2014. "What explains Rwanda's drop in fertility between 2005 and 2010 ?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6741, The World Bank.

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