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Air pollution and income distribution in India

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  • Kakali Mukhopadhyay

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    (Department of Agricultural Economics, McGill University, MacDonald Campus, Canada)

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    Abstract

    Concern over the environmental effects of fossil fuels in India has been growing as domestic consumption levels increase. Along with industry, households are major consumers of commercial energy and, consequently, major contributors to the total energy use in India. Emission levels in the country are gradually increasing. The present study estimates emissions related to fossil fuel combustion in India and also identifies the factors responsible for changes in those emissions during the 1980s and 1990s. Results show that the factor relating to changes in final demand, which reflect increased economic growth, had the greatest influence on emission levels. The study disaggregates households into three income groups, examining the contribution each makes to fossil-fuel-based pollution in India with respect to the various factors identified. Analysis indicates that higher- and middle-income groups generated more pollution due to excessive and inefficient consumption of commercial energy. The paper concludes with a discussion of policy implications.

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    File URL: http://www.unescap.org/pdd/publications/apdj_15_1/3_Mukhopadhyay.pdf
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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) in its journal Asia-Pacific Development Journal.

    Volume (Year): 15 (2008)
    Issue (Month): 1 (June)
    Pages: 35-64

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    Handle: RePEc:unt:jnapdj:v:15:y:2008:i:1:p:35-64

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    1. Mette Wier & Manfred Lenzen & Jesper Munksgaard & Sinne Smed, 2001. "Effects of Household Consumption Patterns on CO2 Requirements," Economic Systems Research, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(3), pages 259-274.
    2. Murthy, N. S. & Panda, Manoj & Parikh, Jyoti, 1997. "Economic development, poverty reduction and carbon emissions in India," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(3), pages 327-354, July.
    3. Pachauri, Shonali & Spreng, Daniel, 2002. "Direct and indirect energy requirements of households in India," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 30(6), pages 511-523, May.
    4. Mukhopadhyay, Kakali & Forssell, Osmo, 2005. "An empirical investigation of air pollution from fossil fuel combustion and its impact on health in India during 1973-1974 to 1996-1997," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(2), pages 235-250, November.
    5. Greening, Lorna A. & Davis, William B. & Schipper, Lee & Khrushch, Marta, 1997. "Comparison of six decomposition methods: application to aggregate energy intensity for manufacturing in 10 OECD countries," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(3), pages 375-390, July.
    6. Choi, Ki-Hong & Ang, B. W., 2003. "Decomposition of aggregate energy intensity changes in two measures: ratio and difference," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(6), pages 615-624, November.
    7. Pachauri, Shonali, 2004. "An analysis of cross-sectional variations in total household energy requirements in India using micro survey data," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(15), pages 1723-1735, October.
    8. Torstein Bye & Annegrete Bruvoll & Jan Larsson, 2006. "Capacity utilization in a generalized Malmquist index including environmental factors. A decomposition analysis," Discussion Papers 473, Research Department of Statistics Norway.
    9. Munksgaard, Jesper & Pedersen, Klaus Alsted & Wien, Mette, 2000. "Impact of household consumption on CO2 emissions," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(4), pages 423-440, August.
    10. Murthy, N.S. & Panda, M. & Parikh, J., 1997. "Economic growth, energy demand and carbon dioxide emissions in India: 1990-2020," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 2(02), pages 173-193, May.
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