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Gender Differences in Executive Compensation and Job Mobility

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  • George-Levi Gayle
  • Limor Golan
  • Robert A. Miller

Abstract

Fewer women than men become executive managers. They earn less over their careers, hold more junior positions, and exit the occupation at a faster rate. We compiled a large panel data set on executives and formed a career hierarchy to analyze mobility and compensation. We find, controlling for executive rank and background, that women earn higher compensation than men, experience more income uncertainty, and are promoted more quickly. Among survivors, being female increases the chance of becoming chief executive officer. The unconditional gender pay gap and job-rank differences are primarily attributable to female executives exiting the occupation at higher rates than men.

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File URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdfplus/10.1086/666615
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File URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/full/10.1086/666615
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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by University of Chicago Press in its journal Journal of Labor Economics.

Volume (Year): 30 (2012)
Issue (Month): 4 ()
Pages: 829 - 872

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Handle: RePEc:ucp:jlabec:doi:10.1086/666615

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Web page: http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/JOLE/

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  1. Treble, John & van Gameren, Edwin & Bridges, Sarah & Barmby, Tim, 2001. "The internal economics of the firm: further evidence from personnel data," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 8(5), pages 531-552, December.
  2. Pekkarinen, Tuomas & Vartiainen, Juhana, 2002. "Gender Differences in Job Assignment and Promotion in a Complexity Ladder of Jobs," Working Paper Series 184, Trade Union Institute for Economic Research.
  3. George-Levi Gayle & Limor Golan, . "Estimating a Dynamic Adverse Selection Model: Labor Force Experience and the Changing Gender Earnings Gap 1968-93," GSIA Working Papers 2006-E40, Carnegie Mellon University, Tepper School of Business.
  4. Dan A. Black & Amelia M. Haviland & Seth G. Sanders & Lowell J. Taylor, 2008. "Gender Wage Disparities among the Highly Educated," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 43(3), pages 630-659.
  5. Baker, George & Gibbs, Michael & Holmstrom, Bengt, 1994. "The Wage Policy of a Firm," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 109(4), pages 921-55, November.
  6. Baker, George & Gibbs, Michael & Holmstrom, Bengt, 1994. "The Internal Economics of the Firm: Evidence from Personnel Data," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 109(4), pages 881-919, November.
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Cited by:
  1. Merlino, Luca Paolo & Parrotta, Pierpaolo & Pozzoli, Dario, 2014. "Gender Differences in Sorting," Working Papers 01-2014, Copenhagen Business School, Department of Economics.
  2. Francis, Bill & Hasan, Iftekhar & John, Kose & Sharma, Zenu, 2013. "Asymmetric benchmarking of pay in firms," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(C), pages 39-53.
  3. Lam, Kevin C.K. & McGuinness, Paul B. & Vieito, João Paulo, 2013. "CEO gender, executive compensation and firm performance in Chinese‐listed enterprises," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 21(1), pages 1136-1159.

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