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Luther and Suleyman

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  • Murat Iyigun

    (University of Colorado, Center of International Development at Harvard University, and Institute for the Study of Labor, IZA)

Abstract

Various historical accounts have suggested that the Ottomans' rise helped the Protestant Reformation as well as its offshoots, such as Zwinglianism, Anabaptism, and Calvinism, survive their infancy and mature. Utilizing a comprehensive data set on violent confrontations for the interval between 1401 and 1700 CE, I show that the incidence of military engagements between the Protestant Reformers and the Counter-Reformation forces between the 1520s and 1650s depended negatively on the Ottomans' military activities in Europe. Furthermore, I document that the impact of the Ottomans on Europe went beyond suppressing ecclesiastical conflicts only: at the turn of the sixteenth century, Ottoman conquests lowered the number of all newly initiated conflicts among the Europeans roughly by 25 percent, while they dampened all longer-running feuds by more than 15 percent. The Ottomans' military activities influenced the length of intra-European feuds too, with each Ottoman-European military engagement shortening the duration of intra-European conflicts by more than 50 percent. Thus, while the Protestant Reformation might have benefited from-and perhaps even capitalized on-the Ottoman advances in Europe, the latter seems to have played some role in reducing conflicts within Europe more generally. (c) 2008 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology..

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by MIT Press in its journal Quarterly Journal of Economics.

Volume (Year): 123 (2008)
Issue (Month): 4 (November)
Pages: 1465-1494

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Handle: RePEc:tpr:qjecon:v:123:y:2008:i:4:p:1465-1494

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Web page: http://mitpress.mit.edu/journals/

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Cited by:
  1. Johnson, Noel D. & Koyama, Mark, 2013. "Legal centralization and the birth of the secular state," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(4), pages 959-978.
  2. Davide Cantoni, 2010. "The economic effects of the Protestant Reformation: Testing the Weber hypothesis in the German Lands," Economics Working Papers 1260, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra.
  3. Davide Cantoni, 2011. "Adopting a New Religion: The Case of Protestantism in 16th Century Germany," Working Papers 540, Barcelona Graduate School of Economics.
  4. Becker, Sascha O. & Boeckh, Katrin & Hainz, Christa & Woessmann, Ludger, 2011. "The Empire Is Dead, Long Live the Empire! Long-Run Persistence of Trust and Corruption in the Bureaucracy," IZA Discussion Papers 5584, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  5. Nunn, Nathan, 2014. "Historical Development," Handbook of Economic Growth, in: Handbook of Economic Growth, edition 1, volume 2, chapter 7, pages 347-402 Elsevier.
  6. Timothy Besley & Marta Reynal-Querol, 2012. "The Legacy of Historical Conflict Evidence from Africa," STICERD - Economic Organisation and Public Policy Discussion Papers Series 036, Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics and Related Disciplines, LSE.
  7. repec:cge:warwcg:40 is not listed on IDEAS
  8. Rubin, Jared, 2011. "Printing and Protestants: reforming the economics of the Reformation," MPRA Paper 31267, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  9. Bednarik, Radek & Filipova, Lenka, 2009. "The role of religion and political regime for human capital and economic development," MPRA Paper 14556, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  10. Pino, Francisco J. & Vidal-Robert, Jordi, 2014. "Habemus Papam? Polarization and Conflict in the Papal States," CAGE Online Working Paper Series 189, Competitive Advantage in the Global Economy (CAGE).
  11. Hanson, Gordon H. & Xiang, Chong, 2013. "Exporting Christianity: Governance and doctrine in the globalization of US denominations," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 91(2), pages 301-320.
  12. Lagerlöf, Nils-Petter, 2014. "Population, technology and fragmentation: The European miracle revisited," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 108(C), pages 87-105.

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