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Agglomeration and Trade with Input–Output Linkages and Capital Mobility


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  • Fr�d�ric Robert-Nicoud


Abstract This paper proposes a nesting ‘New Trade, New Economic Geography’ model in which agglomeration is driven by input–output linkages among firms, trade in goods and capital mobility. The New Economic Geography sub-model exhibits the same positive and dynamic properties as a wide class of models based on other agglomeration mechanisms. Its normative implications are nuanced: equity and efficiency do not necessarily conflict. When input–output linkages are strong, agglomeration might Pareto-dominate dispersion because agglomeration lowers producer prices. When vertical linkages are weak, the market is biased in favour of agglomeration if the planer has a strong aversion to inequalities. RÉSUMÉ Accumulation et commerce avec intégration amont-aval et mobilité du capital. Cet article décrit un modèle, qui a donné naissance au modèle commercial de Flam et Helpman (1987), et de Martin et Rogers (1995) et à un modèle original à la Krugman « Nouvelle Géographie Economique » (1991). L'accumulation se produit par l'intégration amont-aval des sociétés entre elles et par la mobilité du capital. L'auteur étudie les conséquences positives puis normatives du modèle. Dans le domaine des conséquences positives, le modèle NGE montre les mêmes propriétés dynamiques que les autres modèles fondés sur d'autres mécanismes d'accumulation (migration du travail, accumulation de capital humain). Donc, ce modèle est bien adapté pour étudier les questions de localisation des industries, du commerce des biens et de la mobilité du capital. En ce qui concerne les conséquences normatives, lorsque l'intégration amont- aval est forte, l'accumulation peut l'emporter sur la dispersion de Pareto, parce que l'accumulation conduit à une diminution des prix du producteur: l'efficacité et la valeur n'entrent pas forcément en conflit dans ce modèle. Quand l'intégration verticale est faible, le marché est orienté en faveur de l'accumulation si le décideur montre une grande aversion aux inégalités. RESUMEN Aglomeración y comercio con enlaces de entrada–salida y movilidad de capital En este artículo expongo un modelo que atrapa el modelo comercial de Flam y Helpman (1987), de Martin y Rogers (1995) y de un modelo original según la teoría la ‘Nueva Geografía Económica’ de Krugman (1991). La aglomeración está impulsada por enlaces de entrada–salida entre las sociedades y por la movilidad de capital. Aquí analizo las implicaciones positivas y normativas del modelo. En términos de implicaciones positivas, el modelo NEG expone las mismas propiedades dinámicas como una amplia clase de modelos basados en otros mecanismos de aglomeración (migración laboral, acumulación de capital humano). De este modo, el modelo encaja bien para estudiar cuestiones en cuanto a la ubicación de la industria, el comercio de mercancías y la movilidad de capital. Con respecto a las implicaciones normativas, cuando son sólidos los enlaces de entrada–salida, la aglomeración podría dominar la dispersión en el diagrama de Pareto debido a que la aglomeración hace disminuir los precios de los productores: en este modelo la eficiencia y la equidad no necesariamente están en conflicto. Cuando los enlaces verticales son débiles, el mercado es sesgado a favor de la aglomeración si el planificador tiene una fuerte aversión a las desigualdades.

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Article provided by Taylor & Francis Journals in its journal Spatial Economic Analysis.

Volume (Year): 1 (2006)
Issue (Month): 1 ()
Pages: 101-126

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Handle: RePEc:taf:specan:v:1:y:2006:i:1:p:101-126

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Keywords: New Economic Geography; capital mobility; international trade; welfare; F02; F12; F20; R12;

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  1. Fujita, Masahisa & Thisse, Jacques-François, 1996. "Economics of Agglomeration," CEPR Discussion Papers 1344, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  2. Sylvie Charlot & Carl Gaigné & Frédéric Robert-Nicoud & Jacques-François Thisse, 2006. "Agglomeration and welfare: the core-periphery model in the light of Bentham, Kaldor, and Rawls," Working Papers 12374, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, France.
  3. Puga, Diego & Venables, Anthony J., 1997. "Preferential trading arrangements and industrial location," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(3-4), pages 347-368, November.
  4. Gianmarco Ottaviano & Takatoshi Tabuchi & Jacques-FranÁois Thisse, 2002. "Agglomeration and Trade Revisited," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 43(2), pages 409-436, May.
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  12. Ottaviano, Gianmarco Ireo Paolo & Robert-Nicoud, Frédéric, 2004. "The 'Genome' of NEG Models with Vertical Linkages: A Positive and Normative Synthesis," CEPR Discussion Papers 4600, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  13. Venables, Anthony J., 1993. "Equilibrium Locations of Vertically Linked Industries," CEPR Discussion Papers 802, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  14. Faini, Riccardo, 1984. "Increasing Returns, Non-Traded Inputs and Regional Development," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 94(374), pages 308-23, June.
  15. Puga, Diego, 1999. "The rise and fall of regional inequalities," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 43(2), pages 303-334, February.
  16. Andrew B. Bernard & J. Bradford Jensen & Stephen Redding & Peter K. Schott, 2007. "Firms in International Trade," CEP Discussion Papers dp0795, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
  17. Baldwin, Richard E., 2001. "Core-periphery model with forward-looking expectations," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 21-49, February.
  18. Flam, Harry & Helpman, Elhanan, 1987. "Industrial policy under monopolistic competition," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(1-2), pages 79-102, February.
  19. Behrens, Kristian & Lamorgese, Andrea & Ottaviano, Gianmarco Ireo Paolo & Tabuchi, Takatoshi, 2005. "Changes in Infrastructure and Tariff Barriers: Local Vs. Global Impacts," CEPR Discussion Papers 5103, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
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Cited by:
  1. Calfat, Germán & Flôres, R.G. & Rivas, Ana & Granato, M., 2010. "Policy making in asymmetric regional integrations: a methodology for allocating cohesion fund resources," IOB Working Papers 2010.05, Universiteit Antwerpen, Institute of Development Policy and Management (IOB).
  2. Egle Tafenau, 2011. "The effects of regional subsidies to the spatial distribution of economic activity and welfare in the constructed capital model," ERSA conference papers ersa10p1182, European Regional Science Association.
  3. Pflüger, Michael & Südekum, Jens, 2008. "Integration, agglomeration and welfare," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(2), pages 544-566, March.
  4. Maria Florencia Granato, 2011. "REGIONAL NEW ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY (refereed paper)," ERSA conference papers ersa10p747, European Regional Science Association.
  5. Fabien Candau & Marc Fleurbaey, 2011. "Agglomeration and Welfare with Heterogeneous Preferences," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 22(4), pages 685-708, September.
  6. Okubo, Toshihiro, 2009. "Trade liberalisation and agglomeration with firm heterogeneity: Forward and backward linkages," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(5), pages 530-541, September.
  7. Theresa Grafeneder-Weissteiner & Ingrid Kubin & Klaus Prettner & Alexia Prskawetz & Stefan Wrzaczek, 2012. "Coping with Inefficiencies in a New Economic Geography Model," Working Papers 1204, Vienna Institute of Demography (VID) of the Austrian Academy of Sciences in Vienna.


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