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Regional Innovation Systems in Hungary: The Failing Synergy at the National Level

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  • Balazs Lengyel
  • Loet Leydesdorff

Abstract

Lengyel B. and Leydesdorff L. Regional innovation systems in Hungary: the failing synergy at the national level, Regional Studies. Entropy statistics are used in this paper to measure the synergies of knowledge exploration, knowledge exploitation, and organizational control in the Hungarian innovation system. The data consist of high- and medium-technology firms and knowledge-intensive services categorized by subregions (proxy for geography), industrial sectors (proxy for technology), and firm size (proxy for organization). Configurational information along these three dimensions is used as an indicator of a reduction of uncertainty or, in other words, the synergy across the knowledge functions. The results indicate that three regimes have been created during the Hungarian transition with very different dynamics: (1) Budapest and its agglomeration emerge as a knowledge-based innovation system on every indicator; (2) the north-western part of the country, where foreign-owned companies have induced a shift in knowledge-organization; while (3) the system in the eastern and southern parts of the country seems to be organized as a response to government expenditure. The national level no longer adds to the synergy across these regional innovation systems. [image omitted] Lengyel B. et Leydesdorff L. Les systemes d'innovation en Hongrie: une faible synergie au niveau national, Regional Studies. Le present article emploie des statistiques entropiques afin de mesurer les synergies de l'exploration de la connaissance, de l'exploitation de la connaissance, et de la maitrise organisationnelle du systeme d'innovation en Hongrie. On se sert des donnees aupres des entreprises a la pointe de la technologie ou de niveau moyen, et des services a intensite de connaissance classees en fonction de la sous-region (synonyme de geographie), des secteurs industriels (synonymes d'organisation). Des renseignements sur la configuration de ces trois variables sont employes comme indicateur d'une baisse de l'incertitude ou, en d'autres termes, de la synergie a travers les fonctions de connaissance. Les resultats indiquent que trois systemes ont ete crees pendant la phase de transition hongroise dont les dynamiques se distinguent nettement: (1) Budapest et son agglommeration ressortissent comme un systeme d'innovation quel que soit l'indicateur; (2) le nord-ouest du pays ou les entreprises a capital majoritaire etranger ont provoque un mouvement de l'organisation de la conaissance; tandis que (3) le systeme dans l'est et dans le sud du pays semble etre organise en reponse aux depenses gouvernementales. Le niveau national n'ajoute plus a la synergie a travers ces systemes d'innovation regionaux. Systeme d'innovation Synergie de la fonction de connaissance Renseignements sur la configuration Statistiques entropiques Economie en phase de transition Regions Lengyel B. und Leydesdorff L. Regionale Innovationssysteme in Ungarn: Scheitern der Synergie auf nationaler Ebene, Regional Studies. In diesem Beitrag werden mit Hilfe einer Entropiestatistik die Synergien der Wissensexploration, der Wissensausbeute und der organisatorischen Kontrolle im ungarischen Innovationssystem gemessen. Die Daten beziehen sich auf Firmen der Hoch- und Mittelhochtechnologie sowie auf wissensintensive Dienstleistungen, kategorisiert nach Unterregionen (stellvertretend fur Geografie), Branchensektoren (stellvertretend fur Technologie) und Firmengrosse (stellvertretend fur Organisation). Die Konfigurationsinformationen dieser drei Dimensionen werden als Indikator fur die Verringerung der Ungewissheit bzw. anders ausgedruckt fur die Synergie zwischen den Wissensfunktionen herangezogen. Aus den Ergebnissen geht hervor, dass in der Ubergangsphase Ungarns drei Regime mit ausserst verschiedenen Dynamiken geschaffen wurden: (1) Budapest und sein Ballungsraum, die sich hinsichtlich jedes Indikators als wissensbasiertes Innovationssystem erweisen, (2) der Nordwesten des Landes, wo Firmen im auslandischen Besitz Veranderungen bei der Wissensorganisation herbeigefuhrt haben, und (3) das System im Osten und Suden des Landes, das als Reaktion auf staatliche Investitionen organisiert zu sein scheint. Die nationale Ebene tragt nicht mehr zur Synergie zwischen diesen regionalen Innovationssystemen bei. Innovationssystem Synergie der Wissensfunktion Konfigurationsinformationen Entropiestatistik Ubergangswirtschaft Regionen Lengyel B. y Leydesdorff L. Sistemas de innovacion regionales en Hungria: el fracaso de la sinergia a nivel nacional, Regional Studies. En este articulo utilizamos estadisticas de entropia para medir las sinergias de la exploracion del conocimiento, explotacion del conocimiento y el control organizativo en el sistema de innovacion hungaro. Los datos se refieren a empresas de tecnologia alta y media y servicios intensivos en conocimientos categorizados por sub-regiones (indicador de la geografia), sectores industriales (indicador de la tecnologia) y tamano de empresas (indicador de la organizacion). La informacion de configuracion en estas tres dimensiones sirve para indicar la reduccion de la incertidumbre o, en otras palabras, la sinergia en las funciones de conocimiento. Los resultados indican que durante la transicion hungara se crearon tres sistemas con dinamicas muy diferentes: (1) Budapest y su aglomeracion surgen como un sistema de innovacion basado en el conocimiento en cada indicador; (2) en la zona noroeste del pais las empresas de propiedad extranjera han provocado un cambio en la organizacion del conocimiento; mientras que (3) el sistema en las zonas este y sur del pais parece que esta organizado como respuesta al gasto estatal. El nivel nacional ya no contribuye a la sinergia en estos sistemas regionales de innovacion. Sistema de innovacion Sinergia en las funciones de conocimiento Informacion de configuracion Estadisticas de entropia Economia de transicion Regiones

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Taylor & Francis Journals in its journal Regional Studies.

Volume (Year): 45 (2011)
Issue (Month): 5 ()
Pages: 677-693

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Handle: RePEc:taf:regstd:v:45:y:2011:i:5:p:677-693

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Related research

Keywords: Innovation system; Knowledge function synergy; Configurational information; Entropy statistics; Transition economy; Regions;

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Cited by:
  1. Bajmócy, Zoltán & Vas, Zsófia, 2012. "Az innovációs rendszerek 25 éve. Szakirodalmi áttekintés evolúciós közgazdaságtani megközelítésben
    [25 years of innovation systems. A literature review from the angle of evolutionary ec
    ," Közgazdasági Szemle (Economic Review - monthly of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences), Közgazdasági Szemle Alapítvány (Economic Review Foundation), vol. 0(11), pages 1233-1256.
  2. Imre Lengyel, 2011. "Types of competitiveness of Hungarian regions: agglomeration economies and endogenous regional development," ERSA conference papers ersa11p674, European Regional Science Association.
  3. Lengyel, Balázs & Iwasaki, Ichiro & Szanyi, Miklós, 2010. "Industry Cluster and Regional Economic Growth : Evidence from Hungary," Hitotsubashi Journal of Economics, Hitotsubashi University, vol. 51(2), pages 93-112, December.
  4. Loet Leydesdorff, 2012. "The Triple Helix, Quadruple Helix, …, and an N-Tuple of Helices: Explanatory Models for Analyzing the Knowledge-Based Economy?," Journal of the Knowledge Economy, Springer, vol. 3(1), pages 25-35, March.

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