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Instrumental Variable Estimators for Binary Outcomes

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  • Paul S. Clarke
  • Frank Windmeijer

Abstract

Instrumental variables (IVs) can be used to construct estimators of exposure effects on the outcomes of studies affected by nonignorable selection of the exposure. Estimators that fail to adjust for the effects of nonignorable selection will be biased and inconsistent. Such situations commonly arise in observational studies, but are also a problem for randomized experiments affected by nonignorable noncompliance. In this article, we review IV estimators for studies in which the outcome is binary, and consider the links between different approaches developed in the statistics and econometrics literatures. The implicit assumptions made by each method are highlighted and compared within our framework. We illustrate our findings through the reanalysis of a randomized placebo-controlled trial, and highlight important directions for future work in this area.

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File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10.1080/01621459.2012.734171
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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Taylor & Francis Journals in its journal Journal of the American Statistical Association.

Volume (Year): 107 (2012)
Issue (Month): 500 (December)
Pages: 1638-1652

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Handle: RePEc:taf:jnlasa:v:107:y:2012:i:500:p:1638-1652

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References

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  1. Joshua Angrist, 1999. "Estimation of Limited-Dependent Variable Models with Dummy Endogenous Regressors: Simple Strategies for Empirical Practice," Working papers 99-31, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
  2. Victor Chernozhukov & Christian Hansen, 2005. "An IV Model of Quantile Treatment Effects," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 73(1), pages 245-261, 01.
  3. Rivers, Douglas & Vuong, Quang H., 1988. "Limited information estimators and exogeneity tests for simultaneous probit models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 39(3), pages 347-366, November.
  4. Tan, Zhiqiang, 2006. "Regression and Weighting Methods for Causal Inference Using Instrumental Variables," Journal of the American Statistical Association, American Statistical Association, vol. 101, pages 1607-1618, December.
  5. Joshua D. Angrist & Guido W. Imbens, 1995. "Identification and Estimation of Local Average Treatment Effects," NBER Technical Working Papers 0118, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  6. Mark J. van der Laan & Alan Hubbard & Nicholas P. Jewell, 2007. "Estimation of treatment effects in randomized trials with non-compliance and a dichotomous outcome," Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series B, Royal Statistical Society, vol. 69(3), pages 463-482.
  7. Richard Blundell & James Powell, 2001. "Endogeneity in semiparametric binary response models," CeMMAP working papers CWP05/01, Centre for Microdata Methods and Practice, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
  8. Goldberger, Arthur S, 1972. "Structural Equation Methods in the Social Sciences," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 40(6), pages 979-1001, November.
  9. S. Vansteelandt & E. Goetghebeur, 2003. "Causal inference with generalized structural mean models," Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series B, Royal Statistical Society, vol. 65(4), pages 817-835.
  10. Abadie, Alberto, 2003. "Semiparametric instrumental variable estimation of treatment response models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 113(2), pages 231-263, April.
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Cited by:
  1. Paul Clarke & Frank Windmeijer, 2009. "Identification of Causal Effects on Binary Outcomes Using Structural Mean Models," The Centre for Market and Public Organisation 09/217, Department of Economics, University of Bristol, UK.
  2. Berhanu, Wassie, 2011. "Recurrent shocks, poverty traps and the degradation of pastoralists’ social capital in southern Ethiopia," African Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, African Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 6(1), March.
  3. Taylor, Amy E. & Davies, Neil M. & Ware, Jennifer J. & VanderWeele, Tyler & Smith, George Davey & Munafò, Marcus R., 2014. "Mendelian randomization in health research: Using appropriate genetic variants and avoiding biased estimates," Economics & Human Biology, Elsevier, vol. 13(C), pages 99-106.

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