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From OLI to OLMA: Incorporating Higher Levels of Environmental and Structural Complexity into the Eclectic Paradigm

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  • Stephen Guisinger
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    Abstract

    Theorists using the eclectic paradigm have drastically restricted their analytic scope to the firm and its subsidiaries, rarely exploring more finely grained firm structures, such as business processes. By contrast, organisational theorists examining multinational firm behaviour have employed a richly differentiated array of firm structural forms though without developing a precise delineation of the international business environment. Eclectic researchers are adept at handling environmental, but not structural, complexity, while the reverse seems true for organisational theorists. This study extends the eclectic paradigm by incorporating higher levels of environmental and structural complexity through two methods: (1) a deconstruction of the multinational firm into business processes; and (2) a more complete definition of the international business environment, called geovalent elements. The paper argues that an enhanced eclectic paradigm called OLMA (for Ownership, Location, Mode of entry, and Adjustment) provides the complete set of concepts needed for studying the modern multinational firm.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Taylor & Francis Journals in its journal International Journal of the Economics of Business.

    Volume (Year): 8 (2001)
    Issue (Month): 2 ()
    Pages: 257-272

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    Handle: RePEc:taf:ijecbs:v:8:y:2001:i:2:p:257-272

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    Keywords: Multinational Firms; International Business; Theory; Eclectic Paradigm; Adaptation; Environment;

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    Cited by:
    1. Nuno Rosa Reis & Manuel Portugal Ferreira & João Carvalho Santos, 2013. "A bibliometric study of the cultural models in International Business research," Working Papers 104, globADVANTAGE, Polytechnic Institute of Leiria.
    2. Kinra, Aseem & Kotzab, Herbert, 2008. "A macro-institutional perspective on supply chain environmental complexity," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 115(2), pages 283-295, October.
    3. George Anastassopoulos & Fragkiskos Filippaios & Paul Phillips, 2007. "An ‘eclectic’ investigation of tourism multinationals’ activities: Evidence from the Hotels and Hospitality Sector in Greece," GreeSE – Hellenic Observatory Papers on Greece and Southeast Europe 08, Hellenic Observatory, LSE.
    4. Sethi, Deepak & Guisinger, Stephen, 2002. "Liability of foreignness to competitive advantage: How multinational enterprises cope with the international business environment," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 8(3), pages 223-240.
    5. Li, Sali & Tallman, Stephen B. & Ferreira, Manuel P., 2005. "Developing the eclectic paradigm as a model of global strategy: An application to the impact of the Sep. 11 terrorist attacks on MNE performance levels," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 11(4), pages 479-496, December.
    6. Manuel Portugal Ferreira & Fernando A. Ribeiro Serra, 2008. "The impact of strategic resource seeking and market seeking strategies on foreign entry modes under institutional pressures," Working Papers 23, globADVANTAGE, Polytechnic Institute of Leiria.
    7. Manuel Portugal Ferreira & Dan Li & Stephen Guisinger, 2007. "Is the 'International Business Environment' the Actual Context for IB Research?," Working Papers 2, globADVANTAGE, Polytechnic Institute of Leiria.
    8. Li, Gang & Yang, Hongjiao & Sun, Linyan & Ji, Ping & Feng, Lei, 2010. "The evolutionary complexity of complex adaptive supply networks: A simulation and case study," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 124(2), pages 310-330, April.
    9. Scott-Kennel, Joanna & Enderwick, Peter, 2004. "Inter-firm alliance and network relationships and the eclectic paradigm of international production: an exploratory analysis of quasi-internalisation at the subsidiary level," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 425-445, August.
    10. Stoian, Carmen & Filippaios, Fragkiskos, 2008. "Dunning's eclectic paradigm: A holistic, yet context specific framework for analysing the determinants of outward FDI: Evidence from international Greek investments," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 349-367, June.
    11. Lei Li & Zhiang Lin & Bindu Arya, 2008. "The turtle–hare race story revisited: Social capital and resource accumulation for firms from emerging economies," Asia Pacific Journal of Management, Springer, vol. 25(2), pages 251-275, June.
    12. Manuel Portugal Ferreira & Dan Li & Yong Suk Jang, 2007. "Foreign Entry Strategies: Strategic Adaptation To Various Facets Of The Institutional Environment," Working Papers 3, globADVANTAGE, Polytechnic Institute of Leiria.

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