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Reforming the Gender-Related Development Index and the Gender Empowerment Measure: Implementing Some Specific Proposals

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  • Stephan Klasen
  • Dana Schuler

Abstract

Since their inception in 1995, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)'s Gender-Related Development Index (GDI) and Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) have been criticized on conceptual and empirical grounds. In 2005-6, the UNDP's Human Development Report Office undertook a review of these indicators and suggested some modifications. This study extends this work by adjusting the recommendations, making concrete proposals for two gender-related indicators, and presenting illustrative results for these proposed measures. These new measures include the calculation of a male and female Human Development Index (HDI), as well as a gender gap measure (GGM) to replace the GDI as a measure of gender inequality. The study also proposes and implements several modifications and simplifications to the GEM. With these adjustments, a number of Sub-Saharan countries now rank much higher, countries in the Middle East have lower scores in both measures, and some European countries fare notably worse in the revised GEM.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Taylor & Francis Journals in its journal Feminist Economics.

Volume (Year): 17 (2011)
Issue (Month): 1 ()
Pages: 1-30

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Handle: RePEc:taf:femeco:v:17:y:2011:i:1:p:1-30

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Related research

Keywords: Gender inequality measures; GDI; GEM; UNDP; JEL Codes: I31; J16;

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Cited by:
  1. Iñaki Permanyer, 2013. "Are UNDP Indices Appropriate to Capture Gender Inequalities in Europe?," Social Indicators Research, Springer, vol. 110(3), pages 927-950, February.
  2. Niklas Potrafke & Heinrich Ursprung, 2012. "Globalization and gender equality in the course of development," Working Paper Series of the Department of Economics, University of Konstanz 2012-07, Department of Economics, University of Konstanz.
  3. Branisa, Boris & Klasen, Stephan & Ziegler, Maria, 2013. "Gender Inequality in Social Institutions and Gendered Development Outcomes," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 252-268.
  4. Anna Dimitrova & Katarina Hollan & Daphne Laster & Andreas Reinstaller & Margit Schratzenstaller & Ewald Walterskirchen & Teresa Weiss, 2013. "Literature review on fundamental concepts and definitions, objectives and policy goals as well as instruments relevant for socio-ecological transition," WWWforEurope Working Papers series 40, WWWforEurope.
  5. Gaëlle Ferrant, 2014. "The Multidimensional Gender Inequalities Index (MGII): A Descriptive Analysis of Gender Inequalities Using MCA," Social Indicators Research, Springer, vol. 115(2), pages 653-690, January.
  6. Dreher, Axel & Gehring, Kai & Klasen, Stephan, 2013. "Gesture politics or real commitment? Gender inequality and the allocation of aid," Working Paper Series UNU-WIDER Research Paper , World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
  7. Fultz, Elaine & Francis, John, 2013. "Cash transfer programmes, poverty reduction and empowerment of women : a comparative analysis: experiences from Brazil, Chile, India, Mexico and South Africa," ILO Working Papers 484291, International Labour Organization.
  8. Konte, Maty, 2014. "Gender difference in support for democracy in sub-Saharan Africa: Do social institutions matter?," Working Paper Series UNU-WIDER Research Paper , World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
  9. Dorota Witkowska, 2013. "Gender Disparities in the Labor Market in the EU," International Advances in Economic Research, Springer, vol. 19(4), pages 331-354, November.
  10. Jeni Klugman & Francisco Rodríguez & Hyung-Jin Choi, 2011. "The HDI 2010: new controversies, old critiques," Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer, vol. 9(2), pages 249-288, June.
  11. Dhanmanjiri Sathe & Stephan Klasen & Jan Priebe & Mithila Biniwale, 2013. "Does Having a Female Sarpanch Promote Service Delivery for Women and Democratic Participation of Women? Evidence from Maharashtra, India," Courant Research Centre: Poverty, Equity and Growth - Discussion Papers 138, Courant Research Centre PEG.

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