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Is beta still alive? Conclusive evidence from the Swiss stock market

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  • Dusan Isakov

Abstract

Recent evidence from Fama and French (1992, 1996) and others shows that betas and returns are not related empirically. They interpret this as evidence against the validity of the capital asset pricing model and conclude that the beta is not a good measure of risk. This paper claims that usual tests do not leave much opportunity for beta to appear as a useful variable capable of explaining returns, because tests are often performed in periods where the average realized market excess return is not significantly different from zero. In order to assess the usefulness of beta, an alternative approach that dissociates results obtained in periods where the realized market excess is positive from those where it is negative is proposed. These new tests are then applied to a representative sample of the Swiss stock market over the period 1983-1991. The different results unambiguously support the fact that beta is a good measure of risk, because beta is strongly related to the cross-section of realized returns. These results also confirm that there are no arbitrage opportunities on this market.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Taylor & Francis Journals in its journal The European Journal of Finance.

Volume (Year): 5 (1999)
Issue (Month): 3 ()
Pages: 202-212

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Handle: RePEc:taf:eurjfi:v:5:y:1999:i:3:p:202-212

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Keywords: Capital Asset Pricing Model; Risk; Stock Market;

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References

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  1. Affleck-Graves, J. F. & Bradfield, D. J., 1993. "An examination of the power of Univariate tests of the CAPM: A simulation approach," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 45(1), pages 17-33, February.
  2. Modigliani, Franco. & Pogue, G. A., 1973. "A test of the capital asset pricing model on European stock markets," Working papers 667-73., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
  3. Fama, Eugene F & French, Kenneth R, 1992. " The Cross-Section of Expected Stock Returns," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 47(2), pages 427-65, June.
  4. Black, Fischer, 1972. "Capital Market Equilibrium with Restricted Borrowing," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 45(3), pages 444-55, July.
  5. Pettengill, Glenn N. & Sundaram, Sridhar & Mathur, Ike, 1995. "The Conditional Relation between Beta and Returns," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 30(01), pages 101-116, March.
  6. Fama, Eugene F & MacBeth, James D, 1973. "Risk, Return, and Equilibrium: Empirical Tests," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 81(3), pages 607-36, May-June.
  7. Jegadeesh, Narasimhan, 1992. "Does Market Risk Really Explain the Size Effect?," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 27(03), pages 337-351, September.
  8. Gibbons, Michael R & Ross, Stephen A & Shanken, Jay, 1989. "A Test of the Efficiency of a Given Portfolio," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 57(5), pages 1121-52, September.
  9. Ravi Jagnnathan & Ellen R. McGrattan, 1995. "The CAPM debate," Quarterly Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, issue Fall, pages 2-17.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Nikolaos G. Theriou & Vassilios P. Aggelidis & Dimitrios I. Maditinos & Željko Ševic, 2010. "Testing the relation between beta and returns in the Athens stock exchange," Managerial Finance, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 36(12), pages 1043-1056, December.
  2. Tang, Gordon Y. N. & Shum, Wai Cheong, 2004. "The risk-return relations in the Singapore stock market," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 12(2), pages 179-195, April.
  3. Cauchie, Severine & Hoesli, Martin & Isakov, Dusan, 2004. "The determinants of stock returns in a small open economy," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 13(2), pages 167-185.
  4. David Morelli, 2012. "Security returns, beta, size, and book-to-market equity: evidence from the Shanghai A-share market," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 38(1), pages 47-60, January.
  5. Nandha, Mohan & Hammoudeh, Shawkat, 2007. "Systematic risk, and oil price and exchange rate sensitivities in Asia-Pacific stock markets," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 21(2), pages 326-341, June.
  6. Nawazish Mirza & Daniel Danny Simatupang, 2004. "Comparative Systematic Risk Analysis: Evidence on the Banking Sector in the United States, Western Europe and South East Asia," Lahore Journal of Economics, Department of Economics, The Lahore School of Economics, vol. 9(1), pages 149-173, Jan-June.
  7. Basher, Syed A. & Sadorsky, Perry, 2006. "Oil price risk and emerging stock markets," Global Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 17(2), pages 224-251, December.
  8. Tang, Gordon Y. N. & Shum, Wai Cheong, 2003. "The relationships between unsystematic risk, skewness and stock returns during up and down markets," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 12(5), pages 523-541, October.
  9. Tang, Gordon Y. N. & Shum, Wai C., 2003. "The conditional relationship between beta and returns: recent evidence from international stock markets," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 109-126, February.
  10. Morelli, David, 2007. "Beta, size, book-to-market equity and returns: A study based on UK data," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 257-272, July.
  11. Gordon Tang & Wai Cheong Shum, 2006. "Risk-return relationships in the Hong Kong stock market: revisit," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(14), pages 1047-1058.
  12. Morelli, David, 2011. "Joint conditionality in testing the beta-return relationship: Evidence based on the UK stock market," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 21(1), pages 1-13, February.
  13. Andrew Ang & Joseph Chen & Yuhang Xing, 2006. "Downside Risk," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 19(4), pages 1191-1239.
    • Andrew Ang & Joseph Chen & Yuhang Xing, 2005. "Downside risk," Proceedings, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  14. Elsas, Ralf & El-Shaer, Mahmoud & Theissen, Erik, 2003. "Beta and returns revisited: Evidence from the German stock market," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 13(1), pages 1-18, February.
  15. Asgharian, Hossein & Hansson, Björn, 2002. "Cross Sectional Analysis of the Swedish Stock Market," Working Papers 2002:19, Lund University, Department of Economics.

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