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Defense Spending and Economic Growth: Some Empirical Evidence from the Arab Gulf Region

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  • Yousif Khalifa Al-Yousif
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    Abstract

    The present paper investigates the causal relationship between defense spending and economic growth in six Gulf countries for the period 1975-1998. I use Granger-causality test within a multivariate error-correction framework to explore the existence and direction of causality between these two variables. The empirical results indicate that neither growth nor defense can be considered exogenous and that the relationship between them cannot be generalized across countries. Two implications can be derived from these findings. One is the need for more studies, especially from developing countries, using time-series data. The other is that decisions on defense spending should be based on each country's socio-economic circumstances. Given the small sample size, however, caution is advised in considering the above results and their implications as final.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Taylor & Francis Journals in its journal Defence and Peace Economics.

    Volume (Year): 13 (2002)
    Issue (Month): 3 ()
    Pages: 187-197

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    Handle: RePEc:taf:defpea:v:13:y:2002:i:3:p:187-197

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    Web page: http://www.tandfonline.com/GDPE20

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    Related research

    Keywords: Defense Spending; Economic Growth; Macro-economics; Defense Economics; Granger Causality; Theoretical Models; Empirical Models;

    References

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    1. Granger, C. W. J. & Newbold, P., 1974. "Spurious regressions in econometrics," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 2(2), pages 111-120, July.
    2. Deger, Saadet & Sen, Somnath, 1995. "Military expenditure and developing countries," Handbook of Defense Economics, in: Keith Hartley & Todd Sandler (ed.), Handbook of Defense Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 11, pages 275-307 Elsevier.
    3. Phillips, P.C.B., 1986. "Understanding spurious regressions in econometrics," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 33(3), pages 311-340, December.
    4. Paul Dunne & Dimitrios Vougas, 1999. "Military Spending and Economic Growth in South Africa," Journal of Conflict Resolution, Peace Science Society (International), vol. 43(4), pages 521-537, August.
    5. Gilbert, Christopher L, 1986. "Professor Hendry's Econometric Methodology," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 48(3), pages 283-307, August.
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    7. Ram, Rati, 1995. "Defense expenditure and economic growth," Handbook of Defense Economics, in: Keith Hartley & Todd Sandler (ed.), Handbook of Defense Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 10, pages 251-274 Elsevier.
    8. James H. Stock & Mark W. Watson, 1987. "Interpreting Evidence on Money-Income Causality," NBER Working Papers 2228, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    9. Stock, James H. & Watson, Mark W., 1989. "Interpreting the evidence on money-income causality," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 40(1), pages 161-181, January.
    10. Engle, Robert F & Granger, Clive W J, 1987. "Co-integration and Error Correction: Representation, Estimation, and Testing," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(2), pages 251-76, March.
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    12. Bishop, Robert V, 1979. "The Construction and Use of Causality Tests," Agricultural Economics Research, United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, issue 4.
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    14. Lim, David, 1983. "Another Look at Growth and Defense in Less Developed Countries," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 31(2), pages 377-84, January.
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    Cited by:
    1. Bassam AbuAl-Foul, . "Military Spending and Economic Growth: Evidence from Jordan," Economics Working Papers 19-04/2014, School of Business Administration, American University of Sharjah.
    2. Lemmens, A. & Croux, C. & Dekimpe, M.G., 2004. "Decomposing Granger Causality over the Spectrum," ERIM Report Series Research in Management ERS-2004-102-MKT, Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM), ERIM is the joint research institute of the Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University and the Erasmus School of Economics (ESE) at Erasmus Uni.
    3. Habibullah, M.S. & Law, Siong-Hook & Dayang-Afizzah, A.M., 2008. "Defense spending and economic growth in Asian economies: A panel error-correction approach," MPRA Paper 12105, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Lemmens, Aurélie & Croux, Christophe & Dekimpe, Marnik G., 2008. "Measuring and testing Granger causality over the spectrum: An application to European production expectation surveys," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 24(3), pages 414-431.
    5. Jones Danquah & Daniel Sarpong & Ari Pappinen, 2013. "Causal relationships between African mahoganies exports and deforestation in Ghana: policy implications," Environment, Development and Sustainability, Springer, vol. 15(1), pages 51-66, February.

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