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Substitution between games in the UK national lottery

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  • David Forrest
  • O. David Gulley
  • Robert Simmons

Abstract

Virtually all lottery agencies offer a variety of games to suit the tastes of players in an attempt to maximize revenue to the government. Using the UK National Lottery, which offers a variety of on-line and scratchcard games, the extent to which there is substitution or complementarity between games is evaluated Employing weekly data from the three UKNL lottery games offered over the sample period, it is found that own-game characteristics have, by far, the largest influence on sales. Some evidence is found suggesting that the lotto and scratchcard games are partial substitutes for one another. Thunderball sales appear independent of the other two games. Some evidence is also found that the Wednesday and Saturday drawings of the lotto game are substitutes. The overall conclusion is that Camelot has successfully designed and marketed three games that each appeal to bettors in different ways. Thus, sales from one game do not seem to seriously cannibalize the sales of the other games, with the exceptions noted above. Further, the introduction of another, temporary game (Big Draw 2000) contributed to net sales. These results also suggest that the games do not appear to be complements to each other, indicating that the various arguments as to why the games may be so (transactions costs, brand awareness, and the portfolio effect) do not appear to be very strong.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Taylor & Francis Journals in its journal Applied Economics.

Volume (Year): 36 (2004)
Issue (Month): 7 ()
Pages: 645-651

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Handle: RePEc:taf:applec:v:36:y:2004:i:7:p:645-651

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  1. Gulley, O. David & Scott, Frank A. Jr., 1993. "The Demand for Wagering on State-Operated Lotto Games," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association, vol. 46(1), pages 13-22, March.
  2. Forrest, David & Gulley, O. David & Simmons, Robert, 2000. "Elasticity of Demand for UK National Lottery Tickets," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association, vol. 53(n. 4), pages 853-64, December.
  3. Farrell, Lisa, et al, 2000. "The Demand for Lotto: The Role of Conscious Selection," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 18(2), pages 228-41, April.
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Cited by:
  1. Kent Grote & Victor Matheson, 2011. "The Economics of Lotteries: A Survey of the Literature," Working Papers 1109, College of the Holy Cross, Department of Economics.
  2. Victor Matheson & Kent Grote, 2004. "Dueling Jackpots: Are Competing Lotto Games Complements or Substitutes?," Working Papers 0406, College of the Holy Cross, Department of Economics.
  3. Jen-Hung Wang & Larry Tzeng & Junji Tien, 2006. "Willingness to pay and the demand for lotto," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(10), pages 1207-1216.
  4. Humphreys, Brad & Perez, Levi, 2011. "Lottery Participants and Revenues: An International Survey of Economic Research on Lotteries," Working Papers 2011-17, University of Alberta, Department of Economics.
  5. Brad Humphreys & Levi Perez, 2012. "Network externalities in consumer spending on lottery games: evidence from Spain," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 42(3), pages 929-945, June.

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